字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント The Islamic Republic of Iran: a country famous for making those independent movies you claim to enjoy but... you actually never watched them. This country is well known too as for being one of the main enemies for America, Europe and, in general, the democratic world. And of course, there are many reasons to believe so! Iran is an Islamic theocracy where the Head of the State is not even a politician but a religious leader: the Ayatolah Jamenei. Their legal system is based on the sharia law, tortures and executions are a widely common. And it this was not enough, the Government funds several terrorist groups all across the planet. Specially, this one called HIZBULLAH. But... Hold on a second! All of the above is ALSO TRUE in Saudi Arabia. Nonetheless, Saudies are one of the main allies for the Americans and hold commercial relationships with the rest of the world. So Why Iran is so bad and Saudi Arabia is so good? Many would believe the reason is as simple as oil. But the truth is: Iran has the 4th biggest oil resources in the whole planet. And their crude is quite similar to that one in Saudi Arabia. However, just one year ago, they have a ban to sell it to most of the countries. Yes, you heard it right: during years, both America and Europe didn't want to buy anything that could come from this country. So now you might wonder: Why Iran is such a threat to international security while other countries as radical as them are way-better treated? Today, we are gonna answer to that question. But first, let's take a look at history. THE FIRST ISLAMIC REVOLUTION Until the 70s, Iran was one of the most glamourous dictatorships in the World. The so-called SHAH from PERSIA, our good friend, MOHAMMED REZA PAHLEVI ruled over the country with an iron fist. At the same time, he and his wife, FARAH DIVA, where gossip magazines stars. And yes, I said our 'good friend' because the SHAH of Persia was a great ally for the United States and a good friend of the free world. As we said, Iran holds the 4th largest oil reserves in the world. Plus, they have over 80 million habitants and a highly educated population when compared with their neighbouring countries. This said, Iran is a crucial spot in order to control the Middle East region. Nonetheless, while the SHAH was travelling all across the globe, enjoying a lifestyle that would make Kanye West look like a humble dude, his country was getting ready for a revolution. And now you might wonder Was it a communist revolution? An Islamic one? Well... initially, the Iranian opposition was very heterogeneous. Unlike Saudi Arabia, Iran, or, as it was known before, the PERSIAN empire, has a long history and sophisticated culture. So among this opposition groups you could find pro Western liberals, Marxists, social democrats and, of course, radical islamists. The latters had just one difference with the others. They had a leader: the AYATOLA HOMEINI. Despite living on the exile in Paris, he had a great charisma and reputation among the Iranians. From his pulpit in Paris, Homeini addressed to all of those revolutionaries, encouraging them to take over the power under the promise of a new and democratic Iran, where Marxists, liberals and islamists could live together. And this is how the islamist revolution was born. In november, 1979, the revolutionary forces take over the Government palace and the US embassy in Teheran. You might remember Ben Affleck's movie, ARGO, where you can see the story of the American workers at the Embassy being taken as hostages by the Iranians. Right afterwards, the AYATOLAH HOMEINI would come back to his country, supported by all his believers. And... this is what he said during his first speech: 'There is no need for an islamic democracy. It is enough with Islam' --Ayatollah Khomeini As you can imagine, Khomeini would become the new leader of the country. And what was his first goal? Of course, to eliminate the other revolutionary groups that helped him take the power. All those western liberals, Marxists, social democrats and even moderate islamists where excluded from the new Islamic Republic of Iran. And of course, the relationships with the United States where absolutely broken. Well... actually, only kind of broken. Actually, American and Iran went from being 'friends' to 'it's complicated'. In one hand, Khomeiny hated the US badly. But on the other hand, Ronald Reagan, the American president back in the day, was selling weapons to the Iranians so they could fight against their neighbouring country, IRAQ. Do you remember Saddam Hussein? Well... he was a common enemy, both for Khomeini and Uncle Sam. During the 90s and the 2000s, relationships between these two countries will keep the 'it;s complicated' status. In 1997, Iranians choose a new president, Mohammed JATAMI, who tried to restore friendship with US. But, at the same time, the supreme leader, who was not Khomeini anymore but this other one you see on the screen, the Ayatolah Khamenei, had an evergreen obsession with Israel. So he was funding a terrorist organization called HIZBULLAH. Don't forget that in Iran, the ultimate decision maker is not the president but this religious leader who holds the position of head of the state. This said, the American president, back in the time, Bill Clinton, said he would never befriend a country that wants Israel out of the map. Meanwhile, Iran keeps being a divided country. Despite the majority of their population stands for radical islam, there is still a big secular movement. Nonetheless, something happened in 2005 that would change the fate of this country. MAHMOUD AHMADINEJAD Despite what it looks, between the end of the 90s and the beginning of the 2000s, Iran had flirted with moderation and even secularism. They even passed a divorce law that included separation of goods between husband and wife. Not even that, by the year 2006, 50% of the students where female. Of course, Iran was still violation human rights systematically. Women where forced to get their head covered and religious minorities where forbidden. But don't forget we are talking about an Islamic Republic. And in the neighbouring Saudi Arabia, women are not even allowed to drive!!! This is how a radical counter reform process started in Iran. Tortures and detentions multiplied after this year. Police chased those women who wouldn't wear the HIJAB properly and the whole world was shocked with quotes like this one. However, the ultimate concern for Washington was the iranian attempt to build their own nuclear bomb. You see... when a Government that publicly declares their intention to erase Israel from the map and whose president denies the Jewish Holocaust... it's really scary to imagine what would they do if they had a nuke. Add to this the fact that Iran hates Saudi Arabia badly. But we will talk about this in another video. By the way, subscribe now if you don't wanna miss it. So this is the momento where America and Iran change their relationship status from 'it's complicated' to 'enemies'. And the Islamic Republic became a real danger to international stability. SECURITY COUNCIL IMPOSES SANCTIONS ON IRAN FOR FAILURE TO HALT URANIUM ENRICHMENT, This sanctions were no little thing. Do you remember that Iran has the 4th largest crude reserves in the World? Do you remember that the economy of this country depends largely on oil exports? So... imagine what happens where the wealthiest countries decide to stop buying. 'Since January, Iranian government figures show the prices of bread, milk and meat have risen around 20 percent, while the price of chicken has jumped about 80 percent.' But hold on a second! The best is yet to come. Of course, the economic crisis destroyed Ahmadineyad reputation. And his successor, the current president HASSAN ROUHANI, came to power under the promise of liberal reforms and better relationships with the West. But watch out because there is more! THE ARAB SPRING Yes, the official religion of Iran is ISLAM. But not all the islamists are the same. Iran is a Shia Islamic country. Inside the muslim world, Shia islam is a minority. This is one of the reasons why the Iranian ayatollahs hold so bad relationships with the Sunni clergies in Saudi Arabia. And this is the reason why Iran is willing to do whatever they can to fight DAESH or Islamic State. Yes! Daesh is a sunni muslim terrorist organization. Add to this the fact that once America retired its troops from Iraq, the ayatolas funded the new government in BAGDAD. This is what explains the following. Iranian army is fighting the Islamic State, both in Siria and Iraq. And this is both a help and a threat to the United States. No one wants to remove one radical group to have a new one, as radical as the previous one, on the same place. And yes, this explains why Obama's interest in closing ties with Iran. In fact, it was a smart movement to hit two targets in one shot. In one hand, Obama was sending a signal to Saudi Arabia, who was not willing to help him fight DAESH. On the other hand, he was making sure that whoever defeats the bad guys will have a good relationship with the US. Moreover, he would finally seal an agreement with Iran in order to stop their nuclear program. And this is how they closed the famously controversial Iranian nuclear deal. Nonetheless, Obama's sucesor, Donald Trump, wants to stop this diplomatic process. Even though the courts had vetoed his infamous 'Islamic ban', the fact that he included Iran on the list of countries that cannot get into American soil is a clear signal. He is slamming the door to Iran. And, more importantly, he is showing some love to Saudi Arabia. But this is something we are covering more deeply in another video. If you want to understand why Donald Trump is such a good friend of the saudies, click on this video. And now here is the last question: Can America restore their relationship with Iran? Is it worth it to utilize diplomacy in order to avoid this country to become more dangerous and more radical? You can leave your answer on the comments below. And don't forget that we publish brand new videos every Monday and Thursday so don't forget to subscribe so you won't miss any of them. If you liked this video, gives a thumbs up and I see you next time.