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  • OK, now let's talk about the ugly variances, which are the overhead variances. And this

  • is something that even though you just studied it in school, you probably just prayed that

  • the exam wouldn't be tough, and you hopefully got through the exam.

  • What we're looking at here with overhead... Now remember with overhead we said we've got

  • direct materials, direct labor and factory overhead. With overhead we have spending,

  • efficiency, volume. Something that's important to understand is all of your overhead variance

  • analysis is done using the flexible budget equation. What was the flexible budget equation?

  • Total cost equals fixed plus variable times X. So as we go through and we look at these,

  • we're gonna be looking at fixed plus variable times X, where X is gonna be changing as we

  • go across. So it's important to kinda start out with

  • a big picture. It'll take a little bit of time as we go over it for it to start to sink

  • in and make sense, but as we start out, we're gonna be looking at the flexible budget equation,

  • flexible budget equation. So if you look back at those sample numbers

  • I gave you on about page, I don't know, five or so, it says, budget to actual. For example,

  • budgeted overhead costs were fixed rent is $400,000 dollars. Now remember we said we

  • budgeted 100,000 hours, 50,000 units at 2 hours a unit, 100,000 hours. So let's say

  • direct labor hours is our application base. Remember how we applied overhead into production.

  • We applied it based on a predetermined overhead rate, so our application rate was direct labor

  • hours. That was our base. So in looking at this, we have fixed rent,

  • $400,000. But we said, OK, if you wanna break it out, if we're gonna pay $400,000 dollars

  • for rent, but we think we're gonna be using 100,000 hours, that's like $4 dollars per

  • hour times 100,000. That's what we should be using. Variable electricity is a dollar,

  • so we thought variable is a dollar, but we assumed it's 100,000 direct labor hours is

  • $100,000 dollars. So notice that we're figuring our total overhead

  • as $400,000 for rent and another $100,000 for variable. That gives us $500,000 dollars.

  • So we're sitting here saying, my overhead is about $500,000, $400,000 in rent, fixed,

  • $100,000 more or less in electricity based on 50,000 units, budget, 2 hours a unit, there's

  • $100,000. Now your flexible budget equation is F-B-E,

  • that's flexible budget equation, and it says there, four times 100,000 plus a dollar at

  • X. Note, X is actual production, actual hours, or actual production, standard hours allowed.

  • That's what we're gonna be using. Now the other thing they give us is actual, and with

  • actual we have fixed rent of 390, variable electricity of 1.01 at 97,000 hours.

  • Now notice a couple of things. First of all, fixed rent was 390, so it wasn't as fixed

  • as we thought. We got a rent reduction. That you know is gonna be favorable, positive.

  • Our electricity, we budgeted a dollar an hour. It's actually gonna cost us a dollar one,

  • 1.01. Now we also budgeted 100,000 hours, but remember we actually used 96,000, and

  • standard allowed for actual was what? I'm sorry, we actually used 97,000, and standard

  • allowed for actual was 96. So our actual hours we used was 97,000, even though we budgeted

  • a dollar and it was 100,000, 'cause this was 50,000 at 2 hours a unit.

  • So those are a couple of the numbers that are gonna be really important in setting this

  • up. Before we go on, look at the box again about budget, actual and standard allowed.

  • So lemme set those up one more time. Way over here, just so we remember, we had a budget

  • of 50,000 units at 2 hours a unit is 100,000 direct labor hours. We had actual of 48,000

  • at 2.01, which was 97,000 direct labor hours. Our standard allowed for actual is 48,000

  • actual, times standard allowed budget, 2, is 96,000. We're gonna be using all of these

  • in our variance analysis, OK? So again, I just want you to understand the basics of

  • where they came from.

OK, now let's talk about the ugly variances, which are the overhead variances. And this


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B1 中級

オーバーヘッド・バリアンス - レッスン1 (Overhead Variances - Lesson 1)

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    陳虹如 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日