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  • Black holes are one of the most bizarre things that we know of in the universe.

  • Mathematically speaking, any object that has mass can become a black hole.

  • That means that you, me, whatever you're watching this video on right now, and everything else can become a black hole, if you crush all into a small enough space.

  • This space is called a Schwarzschild Radius.

  • If you condense all the matter in any object into its individual Schwarzschild Radius, then the object will become so unimaginably dense that nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light.

  • If you wanted to transform yourself into a black hole, then you would have to find a way to condense all of the matter that makes up your body

  • into an area one sextillion times smaller than a grain of sand.

  • But the larger the amount of mass that gets crushed down into a black hole, the stranger the effect can possibly be.

  • Let's take a Boeing 777 jet, for instance.

  • If somehow the jet suddenly transformed into a black hole, its entire mass would be compacted into an area with an unimaginably tiny radius

  • of just 3.386^-22 meters.

  • For comparison, the smallest atom is a hydrogen atom which has a radius of just 10^-11 meters in size.

  • This would be like comparing the size of a human red blood cell to the entire island of Sicily; an incredible difference

  • in scale that's difficult to really wrap your head around.

  • This outrageously tiny black hole would also not last long at all, because of the effect of Hawking Radiation, which would completely evaporate away

  • the entire mass of the object in just one second.

  • At this point, something else incredibly strange happens.

  • The entire mass of the tiny black hole would be converted into an insanely high amount of energy equal to five million megatons of TNT.

  • That is 87,000 times more powerful than the largest nuclear bomb that humanity has ever detonated, and it would be enough to completely obliterate the entire planet.

  • If you wanted to transform Mount Everest into a black hole, you would need to crush the entire mountain into a space smaller than a nanometer,

  • which is just one-billionth of a meter in length, or the size of ten helium atoms placed side-by-side of each other.

  • It's completely unthinkable, so perhaps if we transformed a larger object, like the Earth, into a black hole, then things might be easier to understand.

  • If we did this, the entire planet--everything that you've ever known, loved, or hated; every person and every thing that has ever existed here--

  • would have to all be crushed into a space the size of just a single U.S. penny.

  • If you replaced the Earth with this penny sized black hole, nothing would change in our solar system.

  • Our moon would continue to orbit the penny sized black hole as if nothing had actually happened, because the mass would remain equal.

  • If you wanted to transform the Sun into a black hole, however, you would have to condense the entire thing into the space with a radius of just three kilometers.

  • Such a space would only be the length of about 1.5 Central Parks, but it would contain the mass of the entire Sun inside of it.

  • Once a black hole has formed, though, it can continue to grow in size by absorbing additional matter

  • like nearby gas and dust from its surroundings, or on occasion, they can even consume entire stars and solar systems.

  • They can even consume other, smaller black holes to rapidly grow in size and ferocity.

  • Let's take the black hole XTE J1650-500, for example, which is believed to be the smallest black hole ever yet discovered.

  • It has a radius of just twelve kilometers, which is a little larger than the island of Manhattan, but contains somewhere between the mass

  • of five to ten Suns inside of that tiny area, and there are still far larger beasts than even this lurking out in space.

  • Take another black hole, GCIRS 13E.

  • There a number of questions surrounding this one's potential existence, but if it's real, then its size is roughly the same of the continent of Europe.

  • All while containing the mass of 1,300 Suns inside of it!

  • But even this is insanely tiny compared to a few more that are out there, like HLX-1, which is designated as an intermediate sized black hole.

  • It has a radius of 295,300 kilometers, so it's about as wide as four Jupiters placed side-by-side, but it contains the mind-boggling mass of 100,000 Suns inside of it!

  • Lurking in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, however, is a Supermassive Class black hole known as Sagittarius A.

  • It has a huge radius of 12,700,000 kilometers, about five percent of the distance between Earth and Venus.

  • But this monster contains the ridiculous mass of 4,300,000 Suns inside of that area!

  • As insane as that sounds, though, we have yet to arrive at the largest known black hole in the entire universe:

  • The monster with the extremely ominous name of S5 0014+81.

  • This titan is sometimes classed into an entirely separate class of black holes: The Ultramassive Class.

  • Its radius is 1,600 times greater than the distance between Earth and the Sun, and contains the mass of forty billion Suns!

  • Let that sink in for a moment.

  • Take the Sun, which is already unbelievably huge compared to anything else on a human scale, and then multiply that by forty billion times,

  • and you have the mass of this behemoth black hole.

  • And if you're curious, that's also equal to this many Toyota Corollas, which is a number so unfathomably huge

  • that I'm not even going to attempt to say it.

  • You can just look at it and understand: it's a lot.

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B1 中級

信じられない規模のブラックホールが可視化される (The Unbelievable Scale of Black Holes Visualized)

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    gotony5614.me97 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日