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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com.

  • I'm Adam.

  • In today's lesson we're going to look at the adjective clause.

  • Now, this is a dependent clause, and if you're not sure what the difference between dependent

  • or independent clause, you can check out my video about the independent clause and my

  • introduction video to dependent clauses.

  • In this lesson we're going to dive a little bit deeper into this particular dependent

  • clause, the adjective clause.

  • Now, some of you will have grammar...

  • Different grammar books, and some of you will see this called the relative clause.

  • Relative clause, adjective clause, same thing.

  • Different books like to call them different things. Okay?

  • So we're going to look at this.

  • Now, the first thing to remember about an adjective clause before we look at the actual

  • structure of it, the full clause is essentially an adjective.

  • Although it's a clause, means it has a subject, and a verb, and maybe some modifiers - the

  • whole piece, the whole clause together works like an adjective.

  • So, because it works like an adjective: What does that mean?

  • It means that it's giving you some information about a noun somewhere in the sentence.

  • You could have many nouns in a sentence, you could have many adjective clauses in a sentence.

  • There's no limit to how many you can have, although try not to have too many in one sentence

  • because the sentence becomes very bulky, not a very good sentence.

  • So let's get right into it.

  • First of all, we have two types of adjective clause.

  • We have a defining adjective clause, which means that it's basically pointing to the

  • noun and telling you something necessary about the noun.

  • Without the adjective clause, the noun is incomplete.

  • I don't know what it is, I don't know what it's doing, etc.

  • The second adjective clause is the modifying, means it is not necessary but we put it in

  • to give a little bit of extra information about the noun.

  • Okay?

  • So it's like an adjective that just gives you a little bit more description about the noun.

  • Two things to remember: The defining noun.

  • Now, one of the biggest questions about adjective clauses is: Do I use a comma or do I not use a comma?

  • For defining adjective clauses, no comma.

  • For modifying, like the extra information, the ones that you could actually take out

  • and the sentence is still okay, use a comma.

  • We're going to look at examples and understand this more.

  • Now, another thing to know about adjective clauses: They all begin with a relative pronoun.

  • Okay? A relative pronoun.

  • This is basically the conjunction of the clause.

  • It is what begins the clause.

  • Now, some of these can be also the subject of the clause, which means it will agree with

  • the verb; some of them cannot.

  • So these three...

  • Whoa, sorry.

  • "That", "which", and "who" can be both the conjunction and the subject.

  • These ones: "whom", "whose", "when", "where", and "why" cannot be the subject of the clause;

  • only the relative pronoun, only the conjunction of the clause.

  • Now, in many cases, "that" can also be removed, but we're going to look at that separately.

  • So, let's look at some examples to get an idea.

  • "The man lives next door."

  • So here we have an independent clause.

  • Independent clause means it's a complete idea, it stands by itself as a sentence, it doesn't

  • really need anything else.

  • But the problem is "the man".

  • Which man?

  • That man, that man, the man across the street?

  • I don't know.

  • So this sentence, although it's grammatically complete, is technically, in terms of meaning,

  • incomplete because I don't know who this man is.

  • I need to identify him.

  • So you can think of defining or identifying.

  • Okay? I want to point specifically to one man because I have "the man".

  • I'm looking at somebody specific.

  • So here's one way we can do it: "The man who lives next door"-"who lives next door"

  • -"is a doctor". Okay?

  • So, again, I still have my independent clause: "The man is a doctor", but now I have my adjective,

  • my identifying adjective clause telling me who the man is.

  • Now, because I need this, I need this clause to identify, to define this man amongst all

  • the possible men, then there's no comma here if you'll notice.

  • And "who" is also the subject of the clause.

  • Subject: "who", "lives" verb.

  • Now, before I continue: What's the difference between "who" and "whom"?

  • "Who" can be a subject, "whom" can only be an object.

  • So you can never use "whom" with a verb.

  • If you see "whom" beginning an adjective clause, there must be a separate subject in that clause,

  • otherwise you're using it incorrectly.

  • Okay?

  • Same with these: "whose", "when", "where", and "why" all must have a separate subject

  • to go with the verb in the clause.

  • So now, I've identified the man, now I have a complete sentence with complete meaning.

  • I can go on to my next sentence.

  • Let's look at this example: "Dr. Smith, who lives next door, is a retired surgeon."

  • Now, here you'll notice...

  • Well, let me go back to my red pen, here.

  • Here you'll notice I have a comma and a comma.

  • What does this mean?

  • It means that "who lives next door" is just extra information.

  • I can take it out.

  • "Dr. Smith is a retired surgeon."

  • Here's my independent clause.

  • Complete, doesn't need any more information.

  • This is a choice.

  • I want to give you a little bit of information, tell you where he lives.

  • Now, you're thinking: "Well, why don't I need to identify him?"

  • Because this is a proper name.

  • Dr. Smith, I've already identified him by saying who, Dr. Smith.

  • That's the person, that's his name, that's his honorific.

  • He's a doctor, Smith.

  • There's not that many Dr. Smiths around here anyway, so we already know who he is.

  • I don't need to identify him, so this is extra information.

  • Okay?

  • Now, you can use all of these with a comma or without a comma.

  • You can use all the conjunctions, all the relative pronouns I should say more correctly,

  • you can use all of them in both identifying and non-identifying.

  • We're just modifying uses.

  • By the way, "modifying", just in case, means to change.

  • So when you modify something, basically you're changing the meaning of it because you're

  • giving more information, you're giving a more complete meaning so you're slightly changing it.

  • So, for example, if I say: "The car", well, it could be any car, but if I say:

  • "The red car",

  • then I'm specifically pointing to one and I've changed the meaning of the word "car"

  • because I've made it only one specific car, so I've modified the noun.

  • Okay?

  • We're going to look at some more examples and you'll see...

  • But before that, actually, "that" and "which" we use when we're talking out...

  • When the noun is a thing.

  • Okay?

  • You could use "that" for people, but why?

  • You have "who" or "whom".

  • If you have "who", use "who"; if you have "that", use "that" for things.

  • That way you don't confuse yourself, less chance to make a mistake.

  • One of the problems with this word: "whose", everybody...

  • Or not everybody, but many people...

  • I shouldn't say that, sorry.

  • "Who", this word has nothing to do with "who", has nothing to do with person only.

  • "Whose" means possession.

  • Okay?

  • It doesn't have to be about a person.

  • A thing can possess something.

  • The car whose front door...

  • Left door is scratched is going to be repaired next week.

  • "Whose" means the door belongs to the car.

  • The car is a thing, but I can still use "whose".

  • So don't confuse "whose" with people.

  • It's just possession.

  • "When", time; "where", place; "why".

  • I put this one in brackets because really you can only say: "The reason why he did that."

  • I...

  • I'm a grammar purist, I'm sorry to say, and some of you might laugh at me, but I hate

  • when I see: "The reason why."

  • It's not wrong, it's commonly used, it's accepted, but reason is a thing.

  • So I say: "The reason that he", etc.

  • There's no need to use "why".

  • The reason means why, use that.

  • But if you use "why", you're okay, that's why I've put it in brackets.

  • I don't like it, but it's acceptable.

  • Use at your own discretion.

  • Okay, let's look at some more examples.

  • Okay, let's look at a few more samples, and we'll get into a little bit more detail about

  • what's going on.

  • "Jerry went to the same store where Jennifer bought her couch."

  • So now, Jerry went shopping for a couch, and he went to a particular place.

  • So he went to the same store where...

  • So now I'm pointing to a place, the store.

  • I could say: "The same store that Jennifer bought her couch at", but not a very good sentence.

  • If it's a place, I can point to it as a place.

  • Just use "where".

  • I'm going to show you after, I'm going to show you a different way to say it using "at",

  • "which", or whatever, a preposition plus "which".

  • We're going to get to that.

  • So, another thing you'll notice: There's no comma here.

  • I'm identifying the store.

  • The same store as what?

  • The same store as she went, the same store as she went? No.

  • The same store where Jennifer bought her couch.

  • So I have to identify which store.

  • Another thing to keep in mind: The adjective clause must almost always come right after

  • the noun that it is modifying.

  • Okay?

  • Sometimes there are exceptions, I will show you those in a minute as well.

  • So, no comma means identifying.

  • "Frank went to study in Boston."

  • Now, Boston, first of all you'll notice a capital B so it's a proper name.

  • Everybody knows this city, Boston, I don't need to identify it.

  • So anything that comes in the adjective clause after will follow the comma because it's modifying,

  • it's extra information.

  • "...where" means Boston, the place, the city.

  • "...where some of the world's best universities are based."

  • Simple enough.

  • But again, right after the noun it's modifying.

  • Now, generally speaking, when you have an identifying or defining clause with no commas,

  • you're going to use "that".

  • When you have a modifying clause with commas, you're going to use "which" when we're talking

  • about things.

  • But there are occasions where you can use "that" or "which".

  • In many grammar books you will see "which" or "that", you can use them both.

  • I prefer that you use "that" with identifying, "which" with non-identifying, but there are

  • occasions where I would use "which" instead.

  • "The only effort that matters is that which leads to a win."

  • Okay?

  • Now, what is this?

  • Keep in mind that the word "that" is one of the most confusing words in English because

  • it has many functions.

  • In this case, this is a pronoun, a demonstrative pronoun.

  • "That" means "that effort".

  • Okay? So, here, it's a noun basically.

  • It's a pronoun.

  • So I am modifying this noun with this adjective clause.

  • So I could say: "The only effort that matters is that that leads to a win."

  • Not wrong, it's totally okay, you can say that, but having "that" and "that" can be

  • a little bit confusing, can sound a little bit off, which is why I prefer to use "which"

  • in this case.

  • Otherwise, I would go with "that" for the identifying clause.

  • Okay?

  • I'm talking about the effort, the specific effort that leads to a win.

  • Okay? But, again, I don't want to have: "that that", so I'm going to use "which" in this case.

  • Otherwise, not. We're going to look at a few more examples to have a better idea of when to use what.

  • Okay, let's look at our next examples, and a few things to mention here specifically

  • about adjective clauses.

  • So first remember I said that the adjective clause must always come right after the noun

  • it's modifying.

  • There are exceptions.

  • This is the thing about English, there's exceptions to every rule.

  • Let's look at this example:

  • "Many students in Mrs. Reynold's class who went on the field trip are home sick..."

  • Oh, sorry.

  • "...are home sick with the flu that's going around".

  • Okay?

  • Now, is this adjective clause: "who went on the field trip"...

  • A field trip is basically in school when the kids go out to a museum or to a play or whatever,

  • that's called a field trip.

  • Is this modifying "class"?

  • No, of course not.

  • "Class" is not a person, I can't use "who".

  • I'm obviously talking about the students.

  • I'm modifying the students.

  • So it's very far away.

  • In this case it's probably okay because: A) I have a prepositional phrase.

  • Okay?

  • So the prepositional phrase basically completes the idea of students, so "students" is the

  • actual noun.

  • Now, another thing is it's very clear that "who" is not talking about "class".

  • In this case, it's very difficult for a reader to get confused.

  • The reader knows that it's about students, and therefore it's okay to do it.

  • Try to avoid it.

  • If you can write another way, if you can say:

  • "Many students who went on the field trip in Mrs. Reynold's class",

  • this actually is a much more confusing sentence.

  • If you try to put the modifier...

  • If you try to put the adjective clause directly after "students", you would make the sentence

  • even more complicated.

  • If you can put it like this and it's clear and it's easy to understand, leave it.