字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Hi. Welcome to this ELC self-study video. Today I'd like to talk about for and against essays In this type of essay, you have to present both negative and positive arguments of the topic you're discussing. Good planning is essential for writing a logical and convincing essay. In the planning stage, you should first narrow the broad topic to something specific, and then turn it into a question. You should ask yourself 'what is the issue?' and 'why is it important?' It is extremely difficult to write a deep and focussed essay on a general topic. The essay will be more manageable when you discuss a specific area. For example, if you want to write an essay on 'using technological devices', you could narrow your topic to 'health issues of using smart phones'. And you should then formulate a statement for discussion, like, Isn't that more straightforward? The next thing you need to do in the planning stage is find sources. You have to look for reliable, up-to-date and relevant information, such as journal articles, books and academic papers. Look for information that covers both sides of the topic. To make writing your essay easier, mark down the major points for and against your topic, as well as where you found the information. Use the table you have created from your sources to group similar points, as well as directly opposing points. This can form the basis of your paragraphs. This then gives you a clear picture of what you're going to write and also how many points you're going to discuss. You can also arrange these groups into a logical order so that your essay will flow better. Good question. The structure for a 'for and against' essay is actually not so different from other essays. It still has an Introduction, Body paragraphs and a Conclusion. First, try to answer the What, Why and How questions in your introduction. Give your readers a brief overview of the issue that the essay is going to discuss. A good introduction raises the readers' interest in reading the essay. Let's use the topic of smart phones as an example again. You can put the two points that support the statement first, and then the other two points that go against the statement next. Or you can have alternative for and against paragraphs, whichever fits and flows better for your topic. First, start with a topic sentence. Each paragraph in the body should have only one main idea, and you should use the first sentence to tell the reader what that is. Then you make the points supporting that idea, using supporting evidence for every single point you make. Supporting evidence is very important because it shows that your points are reasonable and logically correct. Finally, the last sentence should link the information in the paragraph back to the topic sentence so that the essay flows smoothly. In the Conclusion, you should summarise the main points in your essay and state your stance. Remember to explain what your own position is on the topic. Explain your opinion and also outline how your research supports your stance. Remember that there should be no new information in your conclusion, and no citations. Above all, try to leave your readers with a strong final impression. Oh, yes. Remember to write in academic style, write objectively, even if you are giving your own opinions and trying to persuade your readers. And use correct referencing when citing others' work. Well, that's all from me today. Bye!