Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Vatican City: capitol of the Catholic Church, home to the pope, owner of impressive collections

  • of art and history all contained within the borders of the world's smallest country: conveniently

  • circumnavigateable on foot in only 40 minutes.

  • Just how did the world end up with this tiny nation?

  • The short answer is: because Mussolini and the long answer is fiendishly complicated

  • so here's a simplified medium version:

  • The popes used to rule a country called the Papal States that covered much of modern day

  • Italy. It was during this 1,000+ year reign that the Popes constructed St. Peter's Basilica

  • the largest church in the world -- and also built a wall around the base of a hill known

  • as Vatican upon which St. Peter's Stood.

  • But the Kingdom of Italy next door thought Rome would be an awesome capital for their

  • country and so conquered the Papal States.

  • His nation destroyed the Pope hid behind the walls of Vatican and conflictingly refused

  • to acknowledge that the Kingdom of Italy existed, while simultaneously complaining about being

  • a prisoner of the Kingdom of Italy -- which according to him didn't exist.

  • Rather than risk religious civil war by getting rid of the pope the Kingdom of Italy decided

  • to wait him out assuming he'd eventually give up -- but religion is nothing if not obstinate

  • -- and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 popes and sixty years later nothing had changed.

  • Which brings us to Benito Mussolini the then prime minister of Italy who was tired of listing

  • to the Pope complain to Italian Catholics about his self-imposed imprisonment so Mussolini

  • thought he could score some political points by striking a deal which looked like this:

  • 1) Italy gave the land of Vatican to the Pope.

  • and

  • 2) Italy gave the Pope a bunch of apology money

  • In return

  • 1) The Pope acknowledged that Italy existed and

  • and

  • 2) The Pope promised to remain neutral in politics and wars.

  • On the off chance that, you know, Mussolini thought this might be a thing.

  • The deal was signed and a new country, Vatican City was born.

  • And today the tiny nation on a hill has all the things you'd expect of a country: its

  • own government that makes its own laws that are enforced by its own police, who put people

  • who break them in its own jail.

  • It also has its own bank and prints its own stamps and issues its own license plates,

  • though only its citizens can drive within its borders presumably because of terrible,

  • terrible parking -- and as the true mark of any self-respecting nation: it has its own

  • top-level domain: .VA

  • But, despite all these national trappings Vatican City is not really like any other

  • country. Hold on to your fancy hat, because it's about to get weird:

  • To understand the Vatican: there are two people and two things that you need to know about:

  • the famous pope, the incredibly confusing Holy See, The Country of Vatican City and

  • along with that the almost completely unknown King of Vatican City.

  • But first the Pope: who gets a throne to sit upon and from which he acts as the Bishop

  • for all the Catholics in Rome.

  • Actually all Bishops in the Catholic Church get their own thrones but because the Bishop

  • of Rome is also the Pope his thrown is special and has it's own special name: The Holy See.

  • Every time a Pope dies or retires there is a sort of game of thrones to see which of

  • the bishops will next get to occupy the Holy See.

  • So while Popes come and go the throne is eternal. As such the name The Holy See not only refers

  • to the throne but also all the rules that make the Catholic Church the Catholic Church.

  • When Mussolini crafted that aforementioned deal, technically he gave the land of Vatican

  • City to The Holy See -- which, believe it or not, is a legal corporate person in international

  • law. Basically every time you hear the words The Holy See think Catholic Church, Inc of

  • which the Pope is the CEO.

  • Now back to the King. The King of Vatican City has absolute, unchecked power within

  • the country's borders and his presence makes Vatican City one of only six remanning absolute

  • monarchies in the world, including Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Swaziland.

  • The King's absolute power is why Vatican City can't join the European Union because only

  • democracies are allowed.

  • Through Vatican City does, strictly speaking, have a legislative brach of government -- staffed

  • by cardinals, appointed by the pope -- the King of Vatican City can overrule their decisions

  • and at any time for any reason.

  • So why do you never hear about the King of Vatican City? Because though King and Pope

  • are two different roles, they just happen to be occupied by the same person at the same

  • time -- which has the funny consequence that, because the Pope is elected and the King is

  • all-powerful but they're the same guy it makes Vatican City the world's only elected, non-hereditary

  • absolute monarchy.

  • It's this dual-role that makes untangling Vatican City so difficult because the Pope,

  • depending on the situation either acts as The King of the country of Vatican City or

  • the Pope of the Holy See.

  • Got it? No? OK, here's an analogy:

  • Imagine if a powerful international company, say Grey Industries, had a CEO who convinced

  • the United States to give one of its islands to the Company which then made the island

  • into a new country -- Greytropolis -- with an absolute monarchy as its government and

  • the law that the King of Greytropolis is, by definition, the CEO of Grey Industries.

  • It's pretty obvious at that point that the CEO should move his corporate headquarters

  • to the new nation -- so that the laws of the country can benefit the company and the company's

  • global reach can benefit the country. As for the man in the middle sometimes it's good

  • to the the CEO and sometimes it's good to be the king.

  • That is essentially Vatican City.

  • But if you're still confused, don't worry even other countries can't keep it straight.

  • For example the United Nations has The Holy See the corporation as a member but not Vatican

  • City the actual country. And The Holy See gives passports to Vatican City citizens that

  • other countries accept even though those passports come from a company, not a country.

  • And speaking of Vatican City citizens, they are perhaps the strangest consequence of the

  • Pope's dual role as religious leader and monarch.

  • While other countries mint new citizens with the ever popular process of human reproduction

  • Vatican City does not. No one in Vatican City is born a citizen -- and that's not just because,

  • within a rounding error, there are no female Vaticans.

  • The only way to become a citizen is for the King of Vatican City to appoint you as one.

  • And the King only appoints you a citizen if you work for the Pope -- who is also the King.

  • And because the King is all-powerful your citizenship is at his whim. If you quit your

  • job for the Pope, the King -- who is also the pope -- will revoke your citizenship.

  • These rules mean that Vatican City doesn't have a real permanent population to speak

  • of: there are only about 500 full citizens -- which is fewer people that live in single

  • skyscrapers in many countries -- and all these citizens work for The Holy See as either Cardinals

  • or Diplomats or the Pope's bodyguards or other Catholic-related jobs.

  • So it's best to think of Vatican City as a kind of Sovereign Corporate Headquarters that

  • grants temporary citizenship to its managers rather than a real city-state like Singapore:

  • which has a self-reproducing population of citizens engaged in a variety of economic

  • activities both of which Vatican City lacks.

  • But in the end, the reason the world cares about Vatican City is not because of the citizens

  • within its walls but because of the billion members of its church outside those walls.

Vatican City: capitol of the Catholic Church, home to the pope, owner of impressive collections

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

バチカン市国の説明 (Vatican City Explained)

  • 944 104
    VoiceTube に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語