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  • Hi, Sian here for BBC Learning English. In this Masterclass we're going to look at some

    こんにちは。BBC ラーニングイングリッシュの シアンです。今回は

  • differences between formal and informal English.


  • Hey, how's it going? Good afternoon, how are you?


  • Sometimes formal and informal can seem like two different languages. In the same


  • way you wouldn't normally wear shorts and a t-shirt to a job interview, if you use language


  • that's too formal or too informal, you can give a bad impression. Let's look at some


  • differences between formal and informal English. Now, I received an email this morning. Have


  • a look at this email - do you think the language is formal or informal - and why?


  • Dear Mrs Brown,


  • I'm writing to find out whether you have any jobs in your company this summer.


  • At the mo I'm studying Economics at uni.


  • I have been working part-time in a shop and recently they promoted me to the role of manager.


  • I am enthusiastic. I work hard. I pay attention to detail.


  • Ok, so that email used informal language and it's too informal for this style of letter.


  • We're going to look at four features that make this informal and we're going to change


  • it to make it more formal.


  • Number one: choice of vocabulary. In informal English we use more common words and more


  • phrasal verbs. For example here we have a phrasal verb: find out. It would be better

    状態のことです。熟語というのは例えるなら、"find out"(調べるの意)のようなものですね。 「調べる」を表したいので、あれば、

  • to use a more formal equivalent like enquire. Same with jobs, this is quite informal, so

    "enquire"を使う方がよりフォーマルです。 "jobs"についても同様に、とてもインフォーマルなので、

  • instead let's use vacancies here. Instead we have "I'm writing to enquire whether you

    この場合は"vacancies"を使いましょう。  "御社の求人について

  • have any vacancies."

    ご連絡を差し上げた次第です。" といったように。

  • Number two: It's more common in informal language to use abbreviations, contractions, shortened


  • forms of verbs. Let's have a look. So, here we have at the mo, which is short for at the

    多くの方がご存知だと思います。 それでは、先ほどのメールを見ていきましょう。"at the mo"、これは"At the

  • moment. This is OK when you're speaking, but not when you're writing. Here, we could use

    moment"の略ですね。 会話上なら、問題ありませんが、書き言葉ではそうはいきません。ここでは、"currently" を使う方が

  • currently which is even more formal. Same here, uni is short for university, so don't

    よりフォーマルです。 同じように、"uni"は"university"の略ですので、使わないように

  • use this short form in a letter. "Currently, I am studying Economics at university."


  • Quite often in formal language we choose passive structures over active. Let's have a look


  • here. The active sentences they promoted me is quite informal - it'd be much better to

    見ていきましょう。 "they promoted"と能動態を使っているのはよくありませんね。 フォーマルな文章にするには、

  • use a passive form here to make it more formal: I was promoted. So, "Recently I was promoted

    "I was promoted" と書き換えましょう。 なので、"最近、マネージャーに

  • to the role of manager." This doesn't mean don't use active structures in a formal letter,

    昇進しました" といった感じに。 フォーマルな便りで、能動態を使ってはいけないと言っているわけでは

  • but have a think about whether a passive one is more appropriate.


  • Finally, in informal English, short, simple sentences are much more common. Whereas in

    最後に、 短かったり、単純だったりする文章というのはインフォーマルな言葉遣いだと認知されています。

  • formal English, we use more complex structures. Take a look at this one. Here


  • we have three short, simple sentences and this is fine in informal English, but in formal


  • English it's better to use a complex structure. We can do this by adding relative pronouns

    フォーマルな場面では、複雑なものにする方がいいでしょう。 関係代名詞や接続詞を使うと

  • or linkers. For example, "I am an enthusiastic person who works hard and pays attention to detail.

    いいでしょう。 たとえば、"私は勤勉で、細部にまで気を配れる、情熱的な人間です”といった具合に。

  • So, would you kindly visit our website... ah, we're friends, that's too formal. Go to


  • our website for more information about this and to practise formal


  • and informal English. See you soon - goodbye!

    なりますよ。 それではまた。 グッバイ!

Hi, Sian here for BBC Learning English. In this Masterclass we're going to look at some

こんにちは。BBC ラーニングイングリッシュの シアンです。今回は

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【英語学習】フォーマルな英語とインフォーマルな英語(BBC Masterclass: Formal and informal English)

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    Nicolas Kau に公開 2018 年 12 月 10 日