Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • I remember the very first time I went to a nice restaurant,

    初めて洒落たレストランに 行った時の事をよく覚えています

  • a really nice restaurant.


  • It was for a law firm recruitment dinner,

    法律事務所が主催した 面接ディナーでした

  • and I remember beforehand the waitress walked around


  • and asked whether we wanted some wine,


  • so I said, "Sure, I'll take some white wine."

    「もちろん」と答えました 「白ワインを少し」 と

  • And she immediately said,


  • "Would you like sauvignon blanc or chardonnay?"

    「ソーヴィニヨン・ブランと シャルドネが ございます」

  • And I remember thinking,


  • "Come on, lady, stop with the fancy French words


  • and just give me some white wine."


  • But I used my powers of deduction


  • and recognized that chardonnay and sauvignon blanc


  • were two separate types of white wine,


  • and so I told her that I would take the chardonnay,


  • because frankly that was the easiest one to pronounce for me.

    その方が僕にとって発音しやすかった それだけが理由でした

  • So I had a lot of experiences like that


  • during my first couple of years as a law student at Yale,

    最初の数年は たくさんこういう経験しました

  • because, despite all outward appearances, I'm a cultural outsider.

    見た目はみんなと同じでも 文化的には よそ者でしたから

  • I didn't come from the elites.


  • I didn't come from the Northeast or from San Francisco.

    東海岸の北東部や サンフランシスコ出身ではなく

  • I came from a southern Ohio steel town,


  • and it's a town that's really struggling in a lot of ways,


  • ways that are indicative of the broader struggles


  • of America's working class.


  • Heroin has moved in,


  • killing a lot of people, people I know.

    僕の知り合いも含め たくさんの命を奪っています

  • Family violence, domestic violence, and divorce have torn apart families.

    家族間のもめごと 家庭内暴力 離婚により家族が引き裂かれています

  • And there's a very unique sense of pessimism that's moved in.

    社会にも悲観的なムードが 浸透しています

  • Think about rising mortality rates in these communities

    このような地域で 死亡率が上昇している事を考え

  • and recognize that for a lot of these folks,

    この状況で暮らす 人々の多くにとって

  • the problems that they're seeing


  • are actually causing rising death rates in their own communities,

    地域の死亡率を押し上げる 直接の原因だという事を理解すれば

  • so there's a very real sense of struggle.


  • I had a very front-row seat to that struggle.

    僕はそんな葛藤を 目撃しながら育ちました

  • My family has been part of that struggle for a very long time.

    僕の家族は長年その苦労と 共に生きてきました

  • I come from a family that doesn't have a whole lot of money.


  • The addiction that plagued my community


  • also plagued my family, and even, sadly, my own mom.

    僕のファミリーも汚染し 悲しい事に 母も犠牲者の一人です

  • There were a lot of problems that I saw in my own family,

    家庭内では たくさんの問題に 直面しましたが

  • problems caused sometimes by a lack of money,

    その原因は ある時はお金がないこと

  • problems caused sometimes by a lack of access to resources and social capital

    ある時は 人材や物資や 人間関係に基づく支援が得られないことで

  • that really affected my life.

    僕の生活にも 大きな影響を与えました

  • If you had looked at my life when I was 14 years old


  • and said, "Well, what's going to happen to this kid?"

    「この子は将来どうなるだろう」と 考えたとしたら

  • you would have concluded that I would have struggled

    学者が「社会的地位の上昇」と 呼ぶ面で苦労するという

  • with what academics call upward mobility.


  • So upward mobility is an abstract term,

    社会的地位の上昇は 抽象的な用語ですが

  • but it strikes at something that's very core


  • at the heart of the American Dream.


  • It's the sense,

    社会的地位の上昇とは 意識であり

  • and it measures whether kids like me

    僕のように貧しい境遇で 育った子どもが

  • who grow up in poor communities are going to live a better life,

    そこから抜け出し もっといい生活ができるのか

  • whether they're going to have a chance to live a materially better existence,

    今よりも経済的に豊かな生活が 可能になるか

  • or whether they're going to stay in the circumstances where they came from.

    それとも今までと同じ状況に 止まるかを判断できるのです

  • And one of the things we've learned, unfortunately,

    残念ながら 立証されているのは

  • is that upward mobility isn't as high as we'd like it to be in this country,

    この国における上昇移動は 期待するほどは進んでおらず

  • and interestingly, it's very geographically distributed.

    興味深いことに 地域によって ばらつきがあります

  • So take Utah, for instance.


  • In Utah a poor kid is actually doing OK,

    ユタ州の貧しい子供は 実はそんなにひどい境遇ではないのです

  • very likely to live their share and their part in the American Dream.

    アメリカン・ドリームをそれなりに 享受できる可能性が非常に高いのです

  • But if you think of where I'm from,


  • in the South, in Appalachia, in southern Ohio,

    南部や アパラチア地方や オハイオ州南部では

  • it's very unlikely that kids like that will rise.


  • The American Dream in those parts of the country


  • is in a very real sense just a dream.

    事実上 夢に過ぎないのです

  • So why is that happening?


  • So one reason is obviously economic or structural.

    まず考えられるのが経済 あるいは構造的な原因です

  • So you think of these areas.


  • They're beset by these terrible economic trends,


  • built around industries like coal and steel


  • that make it harder for folks to get ahead.


  • That's certainly one problem.


  • There's also the problem of brain drain, where the really talented people,

    また頭脳の流出も問題で 優秀な人々は

  • because they can't find high-skilled work at home,


  • end up moving elsewhere,


  • so they don't build a business or non-profit where they're from,

    地元にビジネスやNPOを 作るのではなく

  • they end up going elsewhere and taking their talents with them.

    別の場所へと去っていき 結果的に才能が流出します

  • There are failing schools in a lot of these communities,


  • failing to give kids the educational leg up


  • that really makes it possible for kids to have opportunities later in life.

    将来チャンスを手にすることを 妨げています

  • These things are all important.

    これらの要素は どれも重要です

  • I don't mean to discount these structural barriers.

    こういう構造的障壁を 軽視する気はありません

  • But when I look back at my life and my community,

    ただ自分の生い立ちや 育った環境をふり返ると

  • something else was going on, something else mattered.

    別のことがおきていて それも重要だったのです

  • It's difficult to quantify, but it was no less real.

    その影響を測るのは難しい事ですが 同じぐらい現実的な問題でした

  • So for starters, there was a very real sense of hopelessness

    まず最初に言えるのが 計り知れない失望感が

  • in the community that I grew up in.


  • There was a sense that kids had that their choices didn't matter.

    子供達は自分の選択は 無意味だと思い込み

  • No matter what happened, no matter how hard they worked,

    何が起きても どんなに一生懸命努力して

  • no matter how hard they tried to get ahead,


  • nothing good would happen.

    良い結果には ならないという絶望感です

  • So that's a tough feeling to grow up around.


  • That's a tough mindset to penetrate,

    そんな思い込みを切り替えるのは 非常に困難で

  • and it leads sometimes to very conspiratorial places.

    思い込みは時に 疑いの原因になります

  • So let's just take one political issue that's pretty hot,

    例えば いま盛んに議論されている 政治問題である

  • affirmative action.


  • So depending on your politics, you might think that affirmative action

    差別是正措置は 政治的な見解によって

  • is either a wise or an unwise way to promote diversity in the workplace

    仕事場や教室の多様性を促す 賢明な方法かどうか

  • or the classroom.


  • But if you grow up in an area like this,


  • you see affirmative action as a tool to hold people like you back.

    差別是正措置は そこに住む人々を 抑え込むものだと考えがちです

  • That's especially true if you're a member of the white working class.

    労働階級の白人だと 特にそうです

  • You see it as something that isn't just about good or bad policy.

    この措置は単に政策の良し悪しの 問題ではなく

  • You see it as something that's actively conspiring,


  • where people with political and financial power


  • are working against you.


  • And there are a lot of ways that you see that conspiracy against you --

    差別是正措置に対する いろいろな陰謀論が

  • perceived, real, but it's there,


  • and it warps expectations.

    その結果 将来への希望は 歪んでしまいます

  • So if you think about what do you do when you grow up in that world,

    そんな世界で育って どうしたらよいか考えた場合

  • you can respond in a couple of ways.


  • One, you can say, "I'm not going to work hard,

    1つ目は「一生懸命 勉強するのはやめよう

  • because no matter how hard I work, it's not going to matter."


  • Another thing you might do is say,


  • "Well, I'm not going to go after the traditional markers of success,

    「一般的な成功の基準を 求めるのは止めよう

  • like a university education or a prestigious job,

    例えば大学の教育や一流な職業 等

  • because the people who care about those things are unlike me.

    そんな基準を気にするのは 自分とは違う境遇の人間だし

  • They're never going to let me in."

    どうせ彼らには 受け入れられないから」

  • When I got admitted to Yale, a family member asked me

    僕がエール大学に合格した時も 家族に聞かれました

  • if I had pretended to be a liberal to get by the admissions committee.

    「入学審査委員会に通るために リベラルのふりをしたのか?」

  • Seriously.


  • And it's obviously not the case that there was a liberal box to check

    もちろん大学の願書には リベラルが付けるチェック欄など

  • on the application,


  • but it speaks to a very real insecurity in these places

    これは こういった地域で 様々な社会障壁を通過するために

  • that you have to pretend to be somebody you're not


  • to get past these various social barriers.

    極めて現実味のある 不安感を表しています

  • It's a very significant problem.


  • Even if you don't give in to that hopelessness,


  • even if you think, let's say,

    例えば 自分の選択には意味があり

  • that your choices matter and you want to make the good choices,


  • you want to do better for yourself and for your family,

    家族と自分のために 向上したいと思ったとしても

  • it's sometimes hard to even know what those choices are

    僕が育ったような環境では そもそも どんな選択肢があるのか

  • when you grow up in a community like I did.


  • I didn't know, for example,


  • that you had to go to law school to be a lawyer.

    ロースクールに行く必要があることすら 知りませんでした

  • I didn't know that elite universities, as research consistently tells us,

    調査で明らかになっているように エリート大学は低所得層の子供にとって

  • are cheaper for low-income kids


  • because these universities have bigger endowments,

    なぜなら有名校には より多くの寄付金が集まり

  • can offer more generous financial aid.


  • I remember I learned this


  • when I got the financial aid letter from Yale for myself,


  • tens of thousands of dollars in need-based aid,

    数万ドルの「所得に応じた援助」と 書いてあった時でした

  • which is a term I had never heard before.

    そんな表現さえ 初めて知りましたが

  • But I turned to my aunt when I got that letter and said,

    その手紙を手にしながら 叔母に言いました

  • "You know, I think this just means that for the first time in my life,

    「これって 生まれて初めて 貧乏なおかげで

  • being poor has paid really well."


  • So I didn't have access to that information

    僕が その情報を 手に入れられなかったのは

  • because the social networks around me didn't have access to that information.

    僕を取り巻く社会的ネットワークが その情報を得られなかったからです

  • I learned from my community how to shoot a gun, how to shoot it well.

    僕はコミュニティーから銃を撃つこと それも上手に撃つことを学びました

  • I learned how to make a damn good biscuit recipe.

    すごく美味しいビスケットの 作り方も学びました

  • The trick, by the way, is frozen butter, not warm butter.

    ちなみに 秘訣は常温でなく 凍ったバターを使うことです

  • But I didn't learn how to get ahead.

    しかし 社会で成功する方法は 教えてもらえませんでした

  • I didn't learn how to make the good decisions


  • about education and opportunity

    適切な判断 すなわち

  • that you need to make


  • to actually have a chance in this 21st century knowledge economy.

    チャンスをつかむのに必要な事は 習いませんでした

  • Economists call the value that we gain from our informal networks,

    経済学者は 私的な人間関係 つまり友人や同僚や家族から

  • from our friends and colleagues and family "social capital."

    我々が得る価値を 「ソーシャルキャピタル」と呼びます

  • The social capital that I had wasn't built for 21st century America,

    僕のソーシャルキャピタルは 21世紀のアメリカ社会では

  • and it showed.


  • There's something else that's really important that's going on

    もう一つ とても重要な要素があります 今も続いていて

  • that our community doesn't like to talk about,


  • but it's very real.


  • Working-class kids are much more likely

    すなわち 労働階級の子供は

  • to face what's called adverse childhood experiences,

    「子供時代の逆境体験」— 要は「トラウマ」のことですが

  • which is just a fancy word for childhood trauma:

    これを経験する可能性が 非常に高いのです

  • getting hit or yelled at, put down by a parent repeatedly,

    親から繰り返し殴られたり 怒鳴られたり 罵られたり