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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    ミシガン州の前知事と 紹介されましたが

  • Well, I was introduced as

    ミシガン州の前知事と 紹介されましたが

  • the former Governor of Michigan,


  • but actually I'm a scientist.

    ポリティカル・サイエンス(政治学)は 真の科学とは違いますが

  • All right, a political scientist, it doesn't really count,


  • but my laboratory was the laboratory of democracy


  • that is Michigan, and, like any good scientist,

    科学者のするように 政策の実験を行い

  • I was experimenting with policy

    どうすれば より多くの人のために より良いことが出来るか

  • about what would achieve the greatest good


  • for the greatest number.

    でも解決できない 3つの難問がありました

  • But there were three problems, three enigmas

    でも解決できない 3つの難問がありました

  • that I could not solve,

    今日はこの3つの問題について お話し しますが

  • and I want to share with you those problems,

    それに対する 私の解決策も

  • but most importantly,

    是非 聞いて頂きたいのです

  • I think I figured out a proposal for a solution.


  • The first problem


  • that not just Michigan, but every state, faces is,

    グローバル経済下で アメリカに良い職を創出するには

  • how do you create good jobs in America


  • in a global economy?

    まず私の実験室からのデータを ご覧下さい

  • So let me share with you some empirical data from my lab.

    2002年に知事に選ばれ 任期1年目の2003年に

  • I was elected in 2002 and, at the end of my first year in office in 2003,


  • I got a call from one of my staff members, who said,


  • "Gov, we have a big problem.

    ミシガンのグリーンビルという 人口8000人の小さな町の

  • We have a little tiny community called Greenville, Michigan,

    ミシガンのグリーンビルという 人口8000人の小さな町の

  • population 8,000,

    最大の雇用主である エレクトロラックスの

  • and they are about to lose their major employer,


  • which is a refrigerator factory that's operated by Electrolux."

    そこで何人が 雇われているのか尋ねると

  • And I said, "Well, how many people work at Electrolux?"

    グリーンビルの人口 8000人のうち 3000人だとのこと

  • And he said, "3,000 of the 8,000 people in Greenville."

    つまり 一つの雇用主で 成り立っている街なのです

  • So it is a one-company town.

    エレクトロラックスはメキシコに 工場を移転する予定でした

  • And Electrolux was going to go to Mexico.

    「私が州知事になったからには そんな事 させないわ

  • So I said, "Forget that. I'm the new Governor.

    州政府の首脳部と グリーンビルに乗り込んで

  • We can fix this. We're going to go to Greenville


  • with my whole cabinet and we will just


  • make Electrolux an offer they can't refuse."

    そう考えて 州政府の首脳部を連れて行き

  • So I brought my whole cabinet,


  • and we met with all of the pooh-bahs of little Greenville --

    市長や市政担当官 地元のカレッジの学長と合流して

  • the mayor, the city manager, the head of the community college --


  • and we basically emptied our pockets


  • and put all of our chips on the table,


  • incentives, you name it, to convince Electrolux to stay,

    エレクトロラックスの幹部の 目の前に差し出しました

  • and as we made our pile of chips,

    エレクトロラックスの幹部の 目の前に差し出しました

  • we slid them across the table to the management of Electrolux.

    20年間 事業税を免除するとか

  • And in the pile were things like zero taxes for 20 years,


  • or that we'd help to build a new factory for the company,

    資金の調達を援助するとか 労働組合の代表も

  • we'd help to finance it. The UAW, who represented the workers,


  • said they would offer unprecedented concessions,


  • sacrifices to just keep those jobs in Greenville.


  • So the management of Electrolux took our pile,


  • our list of incentives, and they went outside the room

    17分間 席を離れました

  • for 17 minutes,

    戻ってくると こう言いました

  • and they came back in and they said,


  • "Wow, this is the most generous


  • any community has ever been to try to keep jobs here.

    でも どうすることもできないんです

  • But there's nothing you can do

    メキシコでは時給$1.57 で 人を雇えるんですから

  • to compensate for the fact that we can pay $1.57 an hour


  • in Juarez, Mexico. So we're leaving."

    というわけで 工場はなくなってしまいました

  • And they did. And when they did, it was like


  • a nuclear bomb went off in little Greenville.

    実際 工場は爆破解体されてしまいました

  • In fact, they did implode the factory.

    これは工場閉鎖の日に 最後の仕事に向かう人です

  • That's a guy that is walking on his last day of work.

    生産ラインで最後の冷蔵庫が 出荷されたその月に

  • And on the month that the last refrigerator rolled off the assembly line,


  • the employees of Electrolux in Greenville, Michigan,


  • had a gathering for themselves that they called the last supper.

    会場はグリーンビルにある 大きな建物で

  • It was in a big pavilion in Greenville, an indoor pavilion,

    私もこの会に参加しました 雇用の流出を止められなかった

  • and I went to it because I was so frustrated as Governor

    州知事として 自分の無力さを感じ

  • that I couldn't stop the outflow of these jobs,


  • and I wanted to grieve with them,

    会場に足を踏み入れると 何千人もの人がいました

  • and as I went into the room-- there's thousands of people there.

    大きな集まりで 円テーブルが並べられ

  • It was a just big thing. People were eating boxed lunches

    皆 配られたお弁当を食べていました

  • on roundtop tables, and there was a sad band playing music,

    寂しげなバンドが 寂しい曲を演奏していました(笑)

  • or a band playing sad music, probably both. (Laughter)

    そこで ある男性に話しかけられました

  • And this guy comes up to me,

    入れ墨にポニーテール 野球帽をかぶり

  • and he's got tattoos and his ponytail and his baseball cap on,

    小さな女の子を 二人連れていました

  • and he had his two daughters with him,

    「知事さん この2人が僕の娘です

  • and he said, "Gov, these are my two daughters."

    現在 48歳ですが

  • He said, "I'm 48 years old,


  • and I have worked at this factory for 30 years.

    高校卒業後 すぐこの工場に来て

  • I went from high school to factory.


  • My father worked at this factory," he said.

    実は 祖父もここで働いていたんです

  • "My grandfather worked at this factory.

    僕は冷蔵庫を作る以外 何もできません」

  • All I know is how to make refrigerators."

    彼はそう言って 娘たちを眺め

  • And he looked at his daughters,

    自分の胸に手をあてると 続けました

  • and he puts his hand on his chest,

    「知事さん 今後 いったい誰が

  • and he says, "So, Gov, tell me,


  • who is ever going to hire me?


  • Who is ever going to hire me?"

    この人に限らず 他の何人からも

  • And that was asked not just by that guy


  • but by everyone in the pavilion,

    きっと今世紀になってから 10年の間に閉鎖した

  • and frankly, by every worker at one of the 50,000 factories

    5万もの工場で働いていた 誰もが 同じ気持ちでいるはずです

  • that closed in the first decade of this century.


  • Enigma number one: How do you create jobs

    グローバル経済下で アメリカにどう雇用を創出するか?

  • in America in a global economy?


  • Number two, very quickly:


  • How do you solve global climate change

    国家エネルギー政策もないのに できるはずがありません

  • when we don't even have a national energy policy in this country

    しかも連邦議会は 常にこう着状態です

  • and when gridlock in Congress seems to be the norm?


  • In fact, there was a poll that was done recently

    下院の支持率は 他のイヤなものと比べても

  • and the pollster compared Congress's approval ratings


  • to a number of other unpleasant things,


  • and it was found, in fact, that Congress's approval rating


  • is worse than cockroaches,

    歯の根管治療や ドナルド・トランプより 低かったことが分かっています

  • lice, Nickelback the band, root canals and Donald Trump. (Laughter)

    でも 安心してください 覚せい剤の密造や

  • But wait, the good news is it's at least better

    淋病よりはまだましです (笑)

  • than meth labs and gonorrhea. (Laughter)

    皆さん これは問題ですね

  • We got a problem, folks.


  • So it got me thinking, what is it?

    いったい 民主主義の実験室で

  • What in the laboratory that I see out there,


  • the laboratories of democracy, what has happened?


  • What policy prescriptions have happened


  • that actually cause changes to occur

    対立を続ける両党に 受け入れられたりするのでしょう

  • and that have been accepted in a bipartisan way?


  • So if I asked you, for example,


  • what was the Obama Administration policy


  • that caused massive changes across the country,


  • what would you say?

    医療保険改革でしょうか でもこれは 政府の押し付けたもので

  • You might say Obamacare, except for those were not voluntary changes.

    全体の半分の州しか 参加していません

  • As we know, only half the states have opted in.

    米国再生・再投資法はどうでしょう これは政策の変更ではありません

  • We might say the Recovery Act, but those didn't require policy changes.

    政策の改革に成功したのは 教育改革である

  • The thing that caused massive policy changes to occur


  • was Race to the Top for education.


  • Why? The government put a $4.5 billion pot


  • and said to the governors across the country, compete for it.


  • Forty-eight governors competed,

    州議会に高校教育のレベルを上げるよう 説得しました

  • convincing 48 state legislatures to essentially


  • raise standards for high schoolers

    大学進学の準備カリキュラムを 履修するようにしたのです

  • so that they all take a college prep curriculum.

    州で始まり国全体に 影響を与える教育政策の改革です

  • Forty-eight states opted in, creating a national [education] policy from the bottom up.

    これを見て これと同じ方法で

  • So I thought, well, why can't we do something like that

    クリーンエネルギー関係の 雇用を創出できないかと考えました

  • and create a clean energy jobs race to the top?


  • Because after all, if you look at the context,

    企業による 過去8年間の投資額は

  • 1.6 trillion dollars has been invested in the past eight years

    世界で 1.6兆ドルにもおよび

  • from the private sector globally,


  • and every dollar represents a job,


  • and where are those jobs going?


  • Well, they're going to places that have policy, like China.

    実は 中国の視察に行ったときの事ですが

  • In fact, I was in China to see what they were doing,

    私たちの一行のための 見かけばかりのプレゼンで

  • and they were putting on a dog-and-pony show for the group that I was with,

    私は何かのデモを見ながら 会場の後ろの方に立っていました

  • and I was standing in the back of the room during one of the demonstrations


  • and standing next to one of the Chinese officials,


  • and we were watching, and he says,


  • "So, Gov, when do you think the U.S. is going to get national energy policy?"

    「下院ではいつも議論がこう着状態で いつになることやら」と答えると

  • And I said, "Oh my God -- Congress, gridlock, who knows?"

    こんな風にして 言いました

  • And this is what he did, he goes, he says,

    「どうぞ ごゆっくり」

  • "Take your time."

    ぐずぐずしている方が 彼らには好都合なのです

  • Because they see our passivity as their opportunity.

    ですから 全米の知事の参加できる

  • So what if we decided to create


  • a challenge to the governors of the country,


  • and the price to entry into this competition


  • used the same amount that the bipartisan group approved in Congress


  • for the Race to the Top for education, 4.5 billion,


  • which sounds like a lot, but actually it's less than


  • one tenth of one percent of federal spending.


  • It's a rounding error on the federal side.


  • But price to entry into that competition would be,


  • you could just, say, use the President's goal.

    下院に承認を迫っている基準_ 2030年までに80%を

  • He wants Congress to adopt a clean energy standard


  • of 80 percent by 2030,


  • in other words, that you'd have to get 80 percent

    エネルギーの8割にクリーンなもので まかなうことを目標にします

  • of your energy from clean sources by the year 2030.


  • Why not ask all of the states to do that instead?


  • And imagine what might happen,


  • because every region has something to offer.


  • You might take states like Iowa and Ohio --


  • two very important political states, by the way --


  • those two governors, and they would say,

    風力タービン製造や 風力発電の分野で リーダーになるというかもしれません

  • we're going to lead the nation in producing

    風力タービン製造や 風力発電の分野で リーダーになるというかもしれません

  • the wind turbines and the wind energy.


  • You might say the solar states, the sun belt,


  • we're going to be the states that produce solar energy for the country,


  • and maybe Jerry Brown says, "Well, I'm going to create

    州内にソーラーパネルの生産の 産業クラスターを形成するかもしれません

  • an industry cluster in California

    州内にソーラーパネルの生産の 産業クラスターを形成するかもしれません

  • to be able to produce the solar panels


  • so that we're not buying them from China


  • but we're buying them from the U.S."


  • In fact, every region of the country could do this.

    太陽と風力発電は 国中どこでも出来るはずです

  • You see, you've got solar and wind opportunity all across the nation.


  • In fact, if you look just at the upper and northern states


  • in the West, they could do geothermal,


  • or you could look at Texas and say,


  • we could lead the nation in the solutions to smart grid.


  • In the middle eastern states which have access to forests


  • and to agricultural waste, they might say,


  • we're going to lead the nation in biofuels.


  • In the upper northeast, we're going to lead the nation


  • in energy efficiency solutions.


  • Along the eastern seaboard, we're going to lead the nation


  • in offshore wind.


  • You might look at Michigan and say, we're going to lead the nation

    電気自動車の心臓ともいえる リチウム・イオン電池のリーダーになれます

  • in producing the guts for the electric vehicle, like the lithium ion battery.


  • Every region has something to offer,


  • and if you created a competition,

    州それぞれの良さを尊重し 自由に問題に取り組んでもらえます

  • it respects the states and it respects federalism.


  • It's opt-in. You might even get Texas and South Carolina,


  • who didn't opt into the education Race to the Top,


  • you might even get them to opt in. Why?

    なぜなら 知事というものは 共和党でも民主党でも

  • Because Republican and Democratic governors

    何か新しい事業を始めるのが 好きなんです

  • love to cut ribbons.

    雇用を増やしたい ということです

  • We want to bring jobs. I'm just saying.

    こうして各州 つまり民主主義の実験室での

  • And it fosters innovation at the state level


  • in these laboratories of democracy.

    最近の政策を眺めている人たちは こう言うかもしれません

  • Now, any of you who are watching anything about politics lately

    「いいアイデアだけど できるのかな?

  • might say, "Okay, great idea, but really?


  • Congress putting four and a half billion dollars on the table?


  • They can't agree to anything."

    下院を通してこのプログラムを やっても良いのですが

  • So you could wait and go through Congress,

    忍耐強くなければ できません

  • although you should be very impatient.

    そこで 型破りな方法で 下院を通さないでやってしまうことも出来ます

  • Or, you renegades, we could go around Congress.


  • Go around Congress.

    民間のプログラムで 知事を競わせてはどうでしょう

  • What if we created a private sector challenge to the governors?

    資本のある会社や このTEDに来ている個人が

  • What if several of the high-net worth companies

    資本のある会社や このTEDに来ている個人が

  • and individuals who are here at TED decided

    数社 数人でパートナーになって

  • that they would create, band together, just a couple of them,


  • and create a national competition to the governors


  • to have a race to the top


  • and see how the governors respond?


  • What if it all started here at TED?


  • What if you were here


  • when we figured out how to crack the code


  • to create good paying jobs in America -- (Applause) --


  • and get national energy policy

    ボトムアップで国のエネルギー戦略が 作れないでしょうか

  • and we created a national energy strategy from the bottom up?

    TEDster (TED仲間) の皆さんも

  • Because, dear TEDsters,


  • if you are impatient like I am,

    経済の競争相手 ―つまり他国は

  • you know that our economic competitors,

    既に競争に先手を打ち 我が国はやられていると

  • our other nations, are in the game


  • and are eating us for lunch.

    競争に参加するか しないかの どちらかです

  • And we can get in the game or not.

    同じ場で戦うか 食われてしまうかならば

  • We can be at the table or we can be on the table.


  • And I don't know about you,


  • but I prefer to dine.


  • Thank you all so much. (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

ミシガン州の前知事と 紹介されましたが


動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 TED 雇用 政策 ミシガン 競争 風力

TED】ジェニファー・グランホルム。ジェニファー・グレンホルム:クリーンエネルギーの提案 --トップへの競争(Jennifer Granholm: A clean energy proposal -- race to the top!) (【TED】Jennifer Granholm: A clean energy proposal -- race to the top! (Jennifer Granholm: A clean energy proposal -- race to the top!))

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    Daniel に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日