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  • Hi guys. I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on spelling rules for

  • the third person present simple. In English, the third person is very special in the present

  • simple because, well, the verb is different than when you say "I", "you", "we", or "they".

  • For example, if we look at the verb "start", we say, "I start" in the present simple, "you

  • start" in the present simple, and then we say "we start" and "they start". However,

  • for the third person, which is "he", "she", or "it", we say, "he starts", "she starts",

  • "it starts". Okay. Today we're going to look at some spelling rules for this third person

  • S. Now, those of you who have been studying English for a while know that we usually add

  • an "s" or an "es" or an "ies" to the end of a verb when we're writing it in the third

  • person. So today, we're going to look at these rules. And if you're wondering, well, "When

  • do I add "es"" "When do I add just "s"", this is what this lesson is for. We're not going

  • to focus so much on the pronunciation part of it. That will be saved for another lesson.

  • Today, I just want to look at the written part and tell you how to write these things.

  • So No. 1, we have four verbs. We have "start", "stand", "work", "read". In the first person

  • we say: "I start"; "I stand"; "I work"; "I read"; but in the third person, as most of

  • you likely know, we have to say: "starts", "stands", "works", "reads", right? So for

  • most verbs in the English language, we just add "s" to the ends of the base form of the

  • verb. So I'm just going to write that here. Add "s" at the end of most verbs. Okay? Now,

  • I don't want to give you a rule that says, "at the end of all consonants", or "at the

  • end of all vowels", because it's not true. So that's why I said at the end of "most"

  • verbs we just add "s". Now, we have No. 2. We have, "catch", "smash",

  • "pass", "fix", "buzz". To these five verbs, we actually have to add "es". So we say, "he"

  • or "she" or "it catches." "He" or "she" or "it smashes." "He" or "she" or "it passes,

  • fixes, and buzzes." So we add "es". So what's the rule here? Well, if you look at the end

  • of each verb, we have "ch", "sh", "s", "x", "z". Any time -- any verb that ends in "ch",

  • "sh", "s", "x", or "z" -- or "zed", depending on if you're British or American -- just add

  • "es". So the rule is: Add "es" to verbs that end with "ch", "sh", "s", "x", or "z" or "zed".

  • Okay, now let's look at another list of verbs, and these are verbs that end in "y". And we

  • actually have two categories of them. We have No. 3, No. 4, "study", "hurry", "carry", "stay",

  • "enjoy", "decay". Now, all these verbs end in "y", but they do have a difference for

  • each category. In this one -- "study", "hurry", "carry" -- each verb actually ends in a consonant

  • plus a "y". So "d", "r", and "r" again are consonants. So when we have a consonant +

  • "y" you must change the "y" to "i" and add "es". So we have "studies", "hurries", and

  • "carries". And I apologize -- basically, all you have to do -- imagine this is not here,

  • right? Erase the "y"; add "ies". So the rule is: We add -- sorry -- we remove "y" and add

  • "ies" when the verb ends with a consonant + "y". Okay. And this should give you an idea

  • about what the rule is for the next one. So here, we have three verbs that end in "y",

  • but they end in a vowel + "y" -- vowel, "a-o-a". So when you have this, simply add "s". So

  • we have: "stays", "enjoys", "decays". So the rule for this -- unlike the consonant + "y"

  • -- is: Add "s" when the verb ends with a vowel + "y". That's it.

  • Okay, guys. If you'd like to test your understanding of this material, if you'd like to improve

  • your spelling, you can check out the quiz on Good luck.

Hi guys. I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on spelling rules for


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A2 初級

スペル - 三人称「S」のルール (Spelling - Rules for Third Person 'S')

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    郭璧如 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日