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  • At its height in 1279, the Mongol empire spanned from the Pacific Ocean to Central Europe making

  • it the largest contiguous land empire in history.

  • Under its ruthless leader, Genghis Khan, the Mongol army slaughtered huge populations and

  • decimated entire cities, conquering more land in 25 years than the Romans did in 400.

  • So how did the Mongol Empire eventually dissolve?

  • Well, before Genghis Khan died in 1227, he divided the empire among his sons who each

  • went on to conquer their own portion of the world.

  • These four khanates were ruled by a single leader of the Empire, Genghisson, Ogedei

  • Khan.

  • When Ogedei died in 1241, it led to a decade long power struggle among Mongol elites.

  • Ultimately, one of Ghengisgrandsons, Möngke Khan took power in 1251.

  • He quickly renewed Mongol expansion, primarily through new conquests in the Middle East and

  • southern China.

  • But just 8 years later, in 1259, Mongke died, and Mongol generals gathered in the capital

  • to choose a successor.

  • One of these generals, was forced to take much of his army away from his conquests around

  • what is today Syria and Israel, a move which unintentionally proved to be a turning point

  • in Mongol history.

  • While this region was left barely protected, and without its conquering general, the small

  • remaining army came up against another conquering empire, the Muslim Mamluks.

  • This standoff, known as the Battle of Ain Jalut was lost spectacularly by the Mongols,

  • and marked the end of their south-west expansion, as well as their first permanent loss..

  • Around this time, the Mongol elites in the capital were unable to choose a successor,

  • escalating into a civil war between Genghis Khan’s descendants.

  • They broke apart into four autonomous empires: Golden Horde, the Ilkhanate the Chagatai Khanate,

  • and the Yuan Dynasty.

  • In 1260 Mongke’s brother, Kublai Khan, took over as Great Khan, however his power was

  • limited to his own Khanate: the Yuan Dynasty.

  • The divided Mongol empire gradually grew weaker, as the khanates were disorganized and succumbed

  • to infighting.

  • One of the biggest issues was that they failed to create a system to peacefully transition

  • power.

  • So, for instance, when the last ruling heir of the Golden Horde died in 1359, the khanate’s

  • government was left in chaos and ultimately overtaken by a rival Muslim Dynasty.

  • Similar defeats brought down other khanates throughout the 14th Century.

  • This gradual collapse was exacerbated by the black plague, which spread along Mongol trade

  • routes.

  • Finally, in 1368, the Ming Dynasty overthrew the Yuan Dynasty, which covered most of the

  • Mongol’s remaining land.

  • At that point, Genghis Khan’s last descendants retreated to Mongolia, where they ruled until

  • 1635.

  • Today, more than 600 years later, the Mongol Empire continues to bewilder historians.

  • The Mongols permanently shifted borders and displaced or eradicated entire populations.

  • But at the same time, they created a completely new system of free trade, and were exceptionally

  • tolerant of different religions and ethnicities.

  • The scope of the Mongolsunrelenting conquests, and their impact on Central Asia and surrounding

  • regions, cannot be ignored.

  • The rise of the Mongol Empire was one of the deadliest conquests in history with fatalities

  • rivaling those of world wars.

  • So, how did this great empire come to be?

  • Find out more in this video.

  • By the beginning of the 13th century around the age of 44, Temujin had overcome all the

  • tribes and unified them, establishing the greater Mongol state and himself as the King

  • of kings or in Western pronunciation, Genghis Khan.

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  • interesting videos every day.

At its height in 1279, the Mongol empire spanned from the Pacific Ocean to Central Europe making


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モンゴル帝国の崩壊 (The Fall Of The Mongol Empire)

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    羅紹桀 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日