Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • The Old Man and the Sea is a novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in

  • 1951 in Cuba, and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction to be produced

  • by Hemingway and published in his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it centers upon

  • Santiago, an aging fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream.

  • The Old Man and the Sea was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1953 and was cited by

  • the Nobel Committee as contributing to the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Literature

  • to Hemingway in 1954.

  • Plot summary The Old Man and the Sea is the story of a

  • battle between an old, experienced fisherman and a large marlin. The novel opens with the

  • explanation that the fisherman, who is named Santiago, has gone 84 days without catching

  • a fish. Santiago is considered "salao", the worst form of unluckiness. In fact, he is

  • so unlucky that his young apprentice, Manolin, has been forbidden by his parents to sail

  • with the old man and been ordered to fish with more successful fishermen. Still dedicated

  • to the old man, however, the boy visits Santiago's shack each night, hauling back his fishing

  • gear, getting him food and discussing American baseball and his favorite player Joe DiMaggio.

  • Santiago tells Manolin that on the next day, he will venture far out into the Gulf Stream,

  • north of Cuba in the Straits of Florida to fish, confident that his unlucky streak is

  • near its end. Thus on the eighty-fifth day, Santiago sets

  • out alone, taking his skiff far onto the Gulf Stream. He sets his lines and, by noon of

  • the first day, a big fish that he is sure is a marlin takes his bait. Unable to pull

  • in the great marlin, Santiago instead finds the fish pulling his skiff. Two days and two

  • nights pass in this manner, during which the old man bears the tension of the line with

  • his body. Though he is wounded by the struggle and in pain, Santiago expresses a compassionate

  • appreciation for his adversary, often referring to him as a brother. He also determines that

  • because of the fish's great dignity, no one will be worthy of eating the marlin. On the

  • third day of the ordeal, the fish begins to circle the skiff, indicating his tiredness

  • to the old man. Santiago, now completely worn out and almost in delirium, uses all the strength

  • he has left in him to pull the fish onto its side and stab the marlin with a harpoon, ending

  • the long battle between the old man and the tenacious fish. Santiago straps the marlin

  • to the side of his skiff and heads home, thinking about the high price the fish will bring him

  • at the market and how many people he will feed.

  • While Santiago continues his journey back to the shore, sharks are attracted to the

  • trail of blood left by the marlin in the water. The first, a great mako shark, Santiago kills

  • with his harpoon, losing that weapon in the process. He makes a new harpoon by strapping

  • his knife to the end of an oar to help ward off the next line of sharks; in total, five

  • sharks are slain and many others are driven away. But the sharks keep coming, and by nightfall

  • the sharks have almost devoured the marlin's entire carcass, leaving a skeleton consisting

  • mostly of its backbone, its tail and its head. Finally reaching the shore before dawn on

  • the next day, Santiago struggles on the way to his shack, carrying the heavy mast on his

  • shoulder. Once home, he slumps onto his bed and falls into a deep sleep.

  • A group of fishermen gather the next day around the boat where the fish's skeleton is still

  • attached. One of the fishermen measures it to be 18 feet from nose to tail. Tourists

  • at the nearby café mistakenly take it for a shark. Manolin, worried during the old man's

  • endeavor, cries upon finding him safe asleep. The boy brings him newspapers and coffee.

  • When the old man wakes, they promise to fish together once again. Upon his return to sleep,

  • Santiago dreams of his youthof lions on an African beach.

  • Background and publication Written in 1951, and published in 1952, The

  • Old Man and the Sea is Hemingway's final work published during his lifetime. The book, dedicated

  • to Hemingway's literary editor Maxwell Perkins, was featured in Life magazine on September

  • 1, 1952, and five million copies of the magazine were sold in two days. The Old Man and the

  • Sea also became a Book of the Month Club selection, and made Hemingway a celebrity. Published

  • in book form on September 1, 1952, the first edition print run was 50,000 copies. The illustrated

  • edition featured black and white illustrations by Charles Tunnicliffe and Raymond Sheppard.

  • The novel received the Pulitzer Prize in May, 1953, and was specifically cited when he was

  • awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. The success of The Old Man and the Sea made

  • Hemingway an international celebrity. The Old Man and the Sea is taught at schools around

  • the world and continues to earn foreign royalties.

  • Hemingway wanted to use the story of the old man, Santiago, to show the honor in struggle

  • and to draw biblical parallels to life in his modern world. Possibly based on the character

  • of Gregorio Fuentes, Hemingway had initially planned to use Santiago's story, which became

  • The Old Man and the Sea, as part of an intimacy between mother and son and also the fact of

  • relationships that cover most of the book relate to the Bible, which he referred to

  • as "The Sea Book." Some aspects of it did appear in the posthumously published Islands

  • in the Stream. Hemingway mentions the real life experience of an old fisherman almost

  • identical to that of Santiago and his marlin in On the Blue Water: A Gulf Stream Letter.

  • Literary significance and criticism The Old Man and the Sea served to reinvigorate

  • Hemingway's literary reputation and prompted a reexamination of his entire body of work.

  • The novel was initially received with much popularity; it restored many readers' confidence

  • in Hemingway's capability as an author. Its publisher, Scribner's, on an early dust jacket,

  • called the novel a "new classic," and many critics favorably compared it with such works

  • as William Faulkner's "The Bear" and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.

  • Santiago as a Spaniard "'Eyes the Same Color of the Sea': Santiago's

  • Expatriation from Spain and Ethnic Otherness in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea" focuses

  • on the old man's national identity. Using baseball references, the article points out

  • that Santiago was at least 22 years old when he moved from Spain to Cuba. "Born in Spain’s

  • Canary Islands, Santiago moved to Cuba as a young man; this circumstance has a significant

  • impact on his social condition." Santiago was old enough to have a Spanish identity

  • when he immigrated, and the article examined how being a foreigner would influence his

  • life on the island. Because Santiago was too poor to move back to Spainmany Spaniards

  • moved to Cuba and then back to Spain at that timehe adopted Cuban culture like religious

  • ceremonies, Cuban Spanish, and fishing in skiffs in order to acculturate in the new

  • country. Gregorio Fuentes, who many critics believe

  • was an inspiration for Santiago, was a blue-eyed man born on Lanzarote in the Canary Islands.

  • After going to sea at age ten on ships that called in African ports, he migrated permanently

  • to Cuba when he was 22. After 82 years in Cuba, Fuentes attempted to reclaim his Spanish

  • citizenship in 2001. Religion as a motif

  • Joseph Waldmeir's essay "Confiteor Hominem: Ernest Hemingway's Religion of Man" is a favorable

  • critical reading of the noveland one which has defined analytical considerations since.

  • Perhaps the most memorable claim therein is Waldmeir's answer to the questionWhat is

  • the book's message? "The answer assumes a third level on which

  • The Old Man and the Sea must be readas a sort of allegorical commentary on all his

  • previous work, by means of which it may be established that the religious overtones of

  • The Old Man and the Sea are not peculiar to that book among Hemingway's works, and that

  • Hemingway has finally taken the decisive step in elevating what might be called his philosophy

  • of Manhood to the level of a religion." Waldmeir was one of the most prominent critics

  • to wholly consider the function of the novel's Christian imagery, made most evident through

  • Hemingway's obvious reference to the crucifixion of Christ following Santiago's sighting of

  • the sharks that reads: "‘Ay,′ he said aloud. There is no translation

  • for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling

  • the nail go through his hands and into the wood."

  • An unrealistic novel

  • One of the most outspoken critics of The Old Man and the Sea is Robert P. Weeks. His 1962

  • piece "Fakery in The Old Man and the Sea" presents his claim that the novel is a weak

  • and unexpected divergence from the typical, realistic Hemingway. In juxtaposing this novel

  • against Hemingway's previous works, Weeks contends:

  • "The difference, however, in the effectiveness with which Hemingway employs this characteristic

  • device in his best work and in The Old Man and the Sea is illuminating. The work of fiction

  • in which Hemingway devoted the most attention to natural objects, The Old Man and the Sea,

  • is pieced out with an extraordinary quantity of fakery, extraordinary because one would

  • expect to find no inexactness, no romanticizing of natural objects in a writer who loathed

  • W.H. Hudson, could not read Thoreau, deplored Melville's rhetoric in Moby Dick, and who

  • was himself criticized by other writers, notably Faulkner, for his devotion to the facts and

  • his unwillingness to 'invent.'" Some critics suggest "The Old Man and the

  • Sea" was Hemingway's reaction towards the criticism of his most recent work, Across

  • the River and into the Trees. The negative reviews for Across the River and into the

  • Trees distressed him, and may have been a catalyst to his writing of The Old Man and

  • the Sea. References

  • Sources

  • Further reading Young, Philip. Ernest Hemingway. New York:

  • Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. ISBN 0-8166-0191-7.  Jobes, Katharine T., ed.. Twentieth Century

  • Interpretations of The Old Man and the Sea. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

  • ISBN 0-13-633917-4.  External links

  • Read Online at Classic Literature Hemingway Archives, John F. Kennedy Library

  • The Old Man and the Seaslideshow by Life magazine

  • Rare, Unseen: Hemingway in Cubaslideshow by Life magazine

  • "Hemingway's fisherman the Old Man of the Sea dies"—BBC News

  • "Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure: Cuba". PBS. Retrieved January 21, 2006. 

The Old Man and the Sea is a novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級

老人と海 (The Old Man and the Sea)

  • 515 37
    songwen8778 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語