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  • Hello, everyone. My name is Oh, Jae-Hoon, a PhD student of Department of Bio and Brain Engineering.

  • Today topic is that immune cell therapy for liver disease.

  • Before a professor’s lecture, I will introduce some basic information of liver and liver disease.

  • Liver is the largest organ of the body. Liver is a reddish brown organ with four lobes of

  • unequal size and shape. It is located in the right side of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm.

  • Liver plays an important role in synthesis of proteins such as albumin, clotting factors and complements.

  • Liver is involved in detoxification and storage. In addition, it participates in the metabolism

  • of lipids and carbohydrates. The liver is the only human organ regenerating lost tissue.

  • 25% of a liver can regenerate into a whole liver.

  • The liver gets dual blood supply from the hepatic arteries and hepatic portal vein.

  • The liver is composed of hepatocyte, kuppfer cell, sinusoidal endothelial cell, hepatic stellate cell,and so on.

  • 80% of the liver volume is occupied by hepatocytes.

  • Hepatocytes play a vital role of hepatic function. Sinusoidal endothelial cells make sinusoidal

  • blood vessel which serve as a way for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery

  • and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein. Kupffer cells are located in the wall of sinusoids.

  • They act as macrophages. Hepatic stellate cells are found in the space between

  • the sinusoids and hepatocytes. In normal liver, the function and role of hepatic stellate

  • cells is unclear. Recent evidence suggests a role as an antigen-presenting cell.

  • When the liver is damaged, stellate cells can secrets extracellular matrix (collagen).

  • There are many kinds of liver disease. The most widely spread liver diseases are fatty liver,

  • hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Fatty liver is a condition that fat accumulate in liver cells.

  • Microscope shows the large vacuoles of fat in liver tissue.

  • Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver. Inflammation is caused by viruses,alcohol, toxin and so on.

  • Cirrhosis is chronic liver disease characterized by replacement

  • of healthy liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue. Liver cancers are malignant tumors

  • that grow on the surface or inside the liver. The most frequent liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma.

  • It accounts for 75% of all liver cancers, Another type of cancer formed by

  • liver cells is hepatoblastoma, which is formed by immature liver cells. It is a rare malignant

  • tumor that develops in children.

  • I’ll explain cirrhosis in more details. Cirrhosis is mostly caused by alcoholism,

  • hepatitis virus, autoimmune, drug, and fatty liver which induce liver injury.

  • In response to liver injury, extracellular matrix or scar is accumulated. This process is called fibrosis.

  • Accumulation of extracellular matrix is considered as wound healing process.

  • However If liver is damaged by long-term injury, scar tissue by fibrosis replaces healthy tissue.

  • Over time this process results in cirrhosis of the liver. Scar tissue of cirrhosis is

  • not able to do normal hepatic function. Once cirrhosis has developed, the serious complications

  • of liver disease may occur, including liver failure and liver cancer.

  • What is the cellular mechanism of fibrosis? Liver injury activates hepatic stellate cells

  • and Kuppfer cells. Stellate cell activation is a key pathogenic feature underlying liver

  • fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activated hepatic stellate cells produce a huge amount of extracellular

  • matrix (collagen fibers) and many cytokine mediators (transforming growth factor-beta,

  • interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). Interaction of hepatic stellate

  • cells and immune cells in liver is related in the progression of liver fibrosis.

  • Some immune cells ameliorate liver fibrosis.

  • What is the treatment for cirrhosis? Currently, cirrhosis can't be cured

  • However, it is possible to manage the symptoms and any complications, and slow its progression.

  • Because cirrhosis is irreversible, treatment aims to stop the disease from getting worse.

  • The treatment depends on the cause of cirrhosis. If cirrhosis is caused by viral hepatitis,

  • patients may be treated with anti-viral drugs. If the patients are heavy drinkers, they are

  • advised to stop drinking alcohol. If the patients are overweight, they are advised to lose weight.

  • If cirrhosis is very severe and the liver stops working, the only treatment option

  • is liver transplantation.

  • There are many scientific efforts to develop new treatment methods for cirrhosis.

  • Professor Jeong Won il (KAIST) and Kim Ja Kyoung (Yonsei University college of medicine ) have developed

  • new and novel treatment for liver cirrhosis. They used immune cell therapy.

  • Autologous bone marrow cells were transplanted into the patients of cirrhosis.

  • Autologous bone marrow cells increase the production of cytokines which inhibited the hepatic stellate

  • cells from secreting collagens. In this clinical trial, the immune cell therapy was effective

  • to improve 70% of the cirrhosis patients.

  • Today speaker is Professor Jeong won ill, at KAIST Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering.

  • Prof. Jeong will give us a lecture on immune cell therapy for liver disease.

  • Thank you for listening.

Hello, everyone. My name is Oh, Jae-Hoon, a PhD student of Department of Bio and Brain Engineering.


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B2 中上級

セミナーシリーズ】免疫応答を標的とした慢性肝疾患の治療、導入 ([Seminar Series] Treatment of chronic liver disease targeting immune responses, introduction)

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    Study English に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日