Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Have you ever walked into a grocery store

  • and wondered where all those variety of apples came from?

  • You might find SnapDragon,

  • Pixie Crunch,

  • Cosmic Crisp,

  • Jazz,

  • or Ambrosia

  • next to the more familiar Red Delicious and Granny Smith.

  • These delightfully descriptive names

  • belong to just a handful of the over 7,500 apple varieties in the world.

  • This huge diversity exists largely because of humanity's efforts to bear new fruit.

  • Fruit breeding is a way to fulfill the expectations of farmers and consumers

  • who seek specific qualities in an apple.

  • On the one hand, farmers may want them to be disease-resistant and to store well.

  • On the other, consumers are swayed by appearance, taste, and novelty.

  • So, breeders have to consider everything

  • from how well apples grow in certain climates

  • to their color, taste, and size.

  • And sometimes finding the perfect fit means breeding something new.

  • To create apples with desirable characteristics,

  • breeders first need to find parent apples that carry those characteristics.

  • Once the parents have been selected,

  • they have to wait until the trees bloom in the spring.

  • The breeder takes the pollen from one bloom, called the father,

  • and transfers it by hand to the other parent bloom, called the mother,

  • through a process called cross-pollination.

  • Once the mother bloom turns into an apple,

  • the seeds are collected and then planted.

  • It takes about five years for these seeds to grow into trees that produce apples,

  • but because of the way traits are inherited,

  • all of the seedlings produced will have different sets of genes

  • and characteristics.

  • This means that to achieve a desired quality,

  • it takes a lot of offspring,

  • not to mention patience on the breeder's part.

  • When a seedling does bear fruit with the desired qualities,

  • it's selected for further evaluation.

  • Of the original crossed seedlings,

  • about one in every 5,000 makes it to this prestigious stage.

  • They're then sent to new farms

  • where breeders can assess how various climates and soil types

  • affect the plant's growth.

  • The fruit of the seedling and its many clones

  • must then be collected and sampled to ensure consistency.

  • Breeders study about 45 traits in an apple,

  • like the texture and firmness of the flesh,

  • when it ripens,

  • how sugary its juice is,

  • and how long it stays fresh.

  • Over several years, they weed out all the bad apples,

  • selecting only those whose fruits are the best.

  • These exclusive plants officially form the cultivar,

  • or new apple variety.

  • To ensure an exact copy of this cultivar,

  • all apple trees must be grafted from the original seedling.

  • Branches, called scion wood,

  • are cut from the original tree and grown to generate more scion wood.

  • Segments of these trees are then grafted onto root stalk -

  • that's the lower section of another tree

  • that's been chosen from a different cultivar

  • for its superior roots and growing ability.

  • Finally, this fusion creates a new apple tree

  • with the desired qualities.

  • Each new plant takes up to four years

  • before it starts producing the fruit we eat.

  • Apple breeding may be a difficult art, but it's accessible to all:

  • universities,

  • companies,

  • and even individuals can create new cultivars.

  • But to fully own an apple, the breeder faces a final challenge -

  • naming the fruit.

  • After a cultivar is patented,

  • a breeder chooses a name for its trademark.

  • That final step grants them long-lasting rights over the apple and its clones.

  • That name must be completely original,

  • and the catchier, the better, of course.

  • With over 7,500 varieties and counting,

  • that's why we have apples called Pink Lady,

  • Sweet Tango,

  • Kiku,

  • and EverCrisp.

  • The more we work with nature's bounty to breed new cultivars,

  • the more creative and delectable these names will become.

Have you ever walked into a grocery store

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級

TED-ED】リンゴにはなぜこんなにたくさんの種類があるのか?- テレサ・ダウド (【TED-Ed】Why are there so many types of apples? - Theresa Doud)

  • 775 47
    Bary Tseng に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語