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  • Today, I'm going to take you

    今日は18分間

  • around the world in 18 minutes.

    みなさんを世界に案内します

  • My base of operations is in the U.S.,

    私の活動ベースは米国ですが

  • but let's start at the other end of the map,

    まずは 遠く離れた―

  • in Kyoto, Japan,

    京都での話から始めます

  • where I was living with a Japanese family

    日本人家庭に下宿し

  • while I was doing part of my dissertational research

    学位論文の調査をしていました

  • 15 years ago.

    15年前のことです

  • I knew even then that I would encounter

    カルチャーショックや誤解を

  • cultural differences and misunderstandings,

    経験するとは思っていましたが

  • but they popped up when I least expected it.

    予想もしない形で訪れました

  • On my first day,

    日本到着の1日目

  • I went to a restaurant,

    レストランに入り

  • and I ordered a cup of green tea with sugar.

    “砂糖入り”の緑茶をオーダー

  • After a pause, the waiter said,

    ウェイターが一瞬戸惑い 言いました

  • "One does not put sugar in green tea."

    “緑茶に砂糖は入れません”

  • "I know," I said. "I'm aware of this custom.

    “その習慣は知っていますが

  • But I really like my tea sweet."

    甘い緑茶が好きなんです”

  • In response, he gave me an even more courteous version

    前よりも礼儀正しい口調で

  • of the same explanation.

    同じことを言われました

  • "One does not put sugar

    “緑茶には…

  • in green tea."

    砂糖を入れませんので…”

  • "I understand," I said,

    “日本人が無糖で飲むのは

  • "that the Japanese do not put sugar in their green tea,

    十分存じていますが

  • but I'd like to put some sugar

    わたくしは

  • in my green tea."

    砂糖を入れるんです”

  • (Laughter)

    (会場の笑い声)

  • Surprised by my insistence,

    私がしつこいので

  • the waiter took up the issue with the manager.

    彼は困って 店長のもとへ

  • Pretty soon,

    すると間もなく

  • a lengthy discussion ensued,

    彼らは長い話し合いをし

  • and finally the manager came over to me and said,

    最終的に店長が謝りに来ました

  • "I am very sorry. We do not have sugar."

    “あいにく 砂糖がございません...”

  • (Laughter)

    (会場の笑い声)

  • Well, since I couldn't have my tea the way I wanted it,

    私好みの緑茶がないので

  • I ordered a cup of coffee,

    コーヒーを頼みました

  • which the waiter brought over promptly.

    すぐさま コーヒーが運ばれ

  • Resting on the saucer

    そこで見たのは

  • were two packets of sugar.

    2袋の砂糖!

  • My failure to procure myself

    私の注文 甘い緑茶が

  • a cup of sweet, green tea

    通らなかった原因は

  • was not due to a simple misunderstanding.

    単純な誤解ではありません

  • This was due to a fundamental difference

    選択に対する双方の

  • in our ideas about choice.

    根本的な考え方の違いです

  • From my American perspective,

    米国人の考え方では

  • when a paying customer makes a reasonable request

    お客さんが好みに基づいた

  • based on her preferences,

    分別ある要求をする限り

  • she has every right to have that request met.

    叶えてもらう権利があります

  • The American way, to quote Burger King,

    バーガーキング曰く

  • is to "have it your way,"

    “自己流で召し上がれ”

  • because, as Starbucks says,

    スタバ 曰く

  • "happiness is in your choices."

    “幸せは選択肢にある”

  • (Laughter)

    (会場の笑い声)

  • But from the Japanese perspective,

    でも 日本人の考えでは

  • it's their duty to protect those who don't know any better --

    無知な人を護るのは

  • (Laughter)

    我らの務め

  • in this case, the ignorant gaijin --

    (会場の笑い声)

  • from making the wrong choice.

    この場合 無知なガイジンを

  • Let's face it: the way I wanted my tea

    誤った選択から護ること

  • was inappropriate according to cultural standards,

    私好みの緑茶は

  • and they were doing their best to help me save face.

    文化的基準に不適切

  • Americans tend to believe

    私の面子を保とうと

  • that they've reached some sort of pinnacle

    彼らは努めました

  • in the way they practice choice.

    反して 米国人は

  • They think that choice, as seen through the American lens

    選択術の頂点を

  • best fulfills an innate and universal

    極めていると考えがち

  • desire for choice in all humans.

    すべての人間は先天的に

  • Unfortunately,

    選択肢を求めるものだと―

  • these beliefs are based on assumptions

    米国人は思っています

  • that don't always hold true

    残念ながら

  • in many countries, in many cultures.

    それは思い込みであり

  • At times they don't even hold true

    異なる国や文化では

  • at America's own borders.

    当てはまらないこともあります

  • I'd like to discuss some of these assumptions

    米国においてですら

  • and the problems associated with them.

    時には当てはまりません

  • As I do so, I hope you'll start thinking

    これらの思い込みと

  • about some of your own assumptions

    それに伴う問題について話します

  • and how they were shaped by your backgrounds.

    みなさんも ご自分の思い込みや

  • First assumption:

    それが形成された過程を

  • if a choice affects you,

    一緒に考えてみてください

  • then you should be the one to make it.

    1つめの思い込み

  • This is the only way to ensure

    “選択が自分に影響をもたらすなら

  • that your preferences and interests

    自分が選択するべきだ

  • will be most fully accounted for.

    己の優先事項や利益を

  • It is essential for success.

    最大限 反映させるには

  • In America, the primary locus of choice

    自ら 選択するしかない”

  • is the individual.

    成功には不可欠です

  • People must choose for themselves, sometimes sticking to their guns,

    米国では 第一の選択権は

  • regardless of what other people want or recommend.

    個人にあります

  • It's called "being true to yourself."

    自分で選択するのが当たり前

  • But do all individuals benefit

    人に左右されず信念を守る

  • from taking such an approach to choice?

    自分に正直に生きる

  • Mark Lepper and I did a series of studies

    でも この選択方法が

  • in which we sought the answer to this very question.

    万人に有利と言えるでしょうか

  • In one study,

    マーク リッパーと共に

  • which we ran in Japantown, San Francisco,

    この疑問を解く調査をしました

  • we brought seven- to nine-year-old Anglo- and Asian-American children

    このリサーチで

  • into the laboratory,

    サンフランシスコの日本人街に行き

  • and we divided them up into three groups.

    7~9歳の白人系とアジア系米国人を

  • The first group came in,

    研究所に呼び

  • and they were greeted by Miss Smith,

    子供を3グループに分けました

  • who showed them six big piles of anagram puzzles.

    第1グループに

  • The kids got to choose which pile of anagrams they would like to do,

    スミスを紹介し

  • and they even got to choose which marker

    6つの文字並べ替えパズルを見せました

  • they would write their answers with.

    子供は 好きなパズルを選択

  • When the second group of children came in,

    答えを書くマーカーペンまで

  • they were brought to the same room, shown the same anagrams,

    選択できます

  • but this time Miss Smith told them

    第2グループが同じ部屋で

  • which anagrams to do

    同じパズルを見せられます

  • and which markers to write their answers with.

    でも今回はスミスが

  • Now when the third group came in,

    どのパズルをするか

  • they were told that their anagrams and their markers

    どのマーカーを使うかを指示

  • had been chosen by their mothers.

    第3グループは

  • (Laughter)

    母親が決めたパズルとマーカーを

  • In reality,

    使うよう指示されます

  • the kids who were told what to do,

    (会場の笑い声)

  • whether by Miss Smith or their mothers,

    実際には

  • were actually given the very same activity,

    スミス または母親に

  • which their counterparts in the first group

    指示を受けたとは言え

  • had freely chosen.

    作業はまったく同じ

  • With this procedure, we were able to ensure

    第1グループだけは

  • that the kids across the three groups

    選択の自由がありました

  • all did the same activity,

    この手順で 3グループに

  • making it easier for us to compare performance.

    同じ作業を与え

  • Such small differences in the way we administered the activity

    成果を比較しやすいように

  • yielded striking differences

    アレンジしました

  • in how well they performed.

    小さな差を設けただけですが

  • Anglo-Americans,

    子供の成果に

  • they did two and a half times more anagrams

    目を見張る差がでました

  • when they got to choose them,

    白人系米国人は

  • as compared to when it was

    自分でパズルを選んだ場合

  • chosen for them by Miss Smith or their mothers.

    2.5倍もの量を解きました

  • It didn't matter who did the choosing,

    このデータは

  • if the task was dictated by another,

    スミスや母親が決めた時との比較です

  • their performance suffered.

    誰が選ぶかには関係なく

  • In fact, some of the kids were visibly embarrassed

    他人から命令されると

  • when they were told that their mothers had been consulted.

    能力が落ちました

  • (Laughter)

    母親が決めたと言うと

  • One girl named Mary said,

    露骨に恥ずかしがる子もいました

  • "You asked my mother?"

    (会場の笑い声)

  • (Laughter)

    メアリーという子が言いました

  • In contrast,

    “なんで ママに聞くわけ?”

  • Asian-American children

    (会場の笑い声)

  • performed best when they believed

    それと反対に

  • their mothers had made the choice,

    アジア系米国人の子供は

  • second best when they chose for themselves,

    母親が選んだ時

  • and least well when it had been chosen by Miss Smith.

    最もよく出来ました

  • A girl named Natsumi

    2番目が自分で選択した時

  • even approached Miss Smith as she was leaving the room

    最下がスミスが選んだ時でした

  • and tugged on her skirt and asked,

    なつみという子は

  • "Could you please tell my mommy

    別れ際 スミスに駆け寄り

  • I did it just like she said?"

    ぴったり くっついて言いました

  • The first-generation children were strongly influenced

    “ママの言う通りにしたって

  • by their immigrant parents'

    ママに伝えてくれる?”

  • approach to choice.

    二世である子供は 選択において

  • For them, choice was not just a way

    移民である両親から

  • of defining and asserting

    強い影響を受けていました

  • their individuality,

    彼らにとって 選択とは

  • but a way to create community and harmony

    個性の明示や主張の

  • by deferring to the choices

    手段だけでなく

  • of people whom they trusted and respected.

    信用し尊敬する人たちに

  • If they had a concept of being true to one's self,

    選択をゆだねることで

  • then that self, most likely,

    社会や調和を築く手段でもあります

  • [was] composed, not of an individual,

    “自分に正直に”という考えを持つとすれば

  • but of a collective.

    おそらく 彼らの“自己”は

  • Success was just as much about pleasing key figures

    個人ではなく

  • as it was about satisfying

    集団的なものでしょう

  • one's own preferences.

    大切な人を喜ばせることは

  • Or, you could say that

    自分自身の望みを

  • the individual's preferences were shaped

    満たすことに匹敵する

  • by the preferences of specific others.

    言葉を変えれば

  • The assumption then that we do best

    個人の選択傾向は

  • when the individual self chooses

    特定の人の望みによって形成されている

  • only holds

    自分が下す決断が

  • when that self

    最も正しいという思い込みが