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  • My name is Eliza Kingsford I am a licensed psychotherapist specializing

  • in body image and eating disorders and obesity

  • and I am the Executive Director of Wellspring. Hi my name is Nicole Avena

  • I am a PhD neuroscientist and

  • author and expert in the fields of diet, nutrition and addiction.

  • I am an assistant professor of pharmacology at the Ichan School of Medicine

  • at Mount Sinai

  • in New York City and I also do work with Wellspring Camps in a

  • consulting role.

  • So according to you a recent survey conducted we found that 92% of

  • Americans believe that food can be an addictive substance

  • and even further more 66% percent of them said

  • that it could possibly take up to two weeks to recover

  • from a sugar or food addiction

  • and feel better from that so given those findings and what we know about addiction

  • we know that to recover from an addiction that

  • incredible support and commitment and consistency is necessary

  • oftentimes behavioral therapy and intervention is necessary and sometimes

  • medical intervention

  • is necessary. It is remiss to say

  • that folks suffering from a food addiction could be

  • cured or helped or relieved by just

  • asking them to eat less and move more and

  • just go to the gym and and eat fewer calories. We know that this is a complex

  • issue and a complex problem that is

  • incredibly more complicated than that.

  • Certainly food addiction is a concept that the scientific community has been

  • studying for many years now

  • and this is something that we've seen scientific evidence for not only in

  • terms of

  • evidence of addiction like behaviors that can emerge in response to eating

  • highly palatable foods but also more importantly

  • there's significant evidence that there's changes in the brain

  • that are associated with chronic overeating that resemble what you

  • would see

  • during an addiction like state, so there's certainly a significant amount

  • of research

  • that is being conducted and continues to be going

  • on that is looking at this area of food addiction

  • and I think we're at the point now where we're at beginning to be able to ask

  • questions about

  • what does this mean for treatment and it certainly does mean that we need to

  • revamp

  • and reconsider some of the approaches that we traditionally use to treat

  • overeating and obesity

  • It may work for some people but it may not work for others and so

  • adopting an

  • addiction model and considering that with respect to treatment really opens

  • the door

  • and can give the potential to help many different people who are suffering

  • from overeating.

  • So a lot experiments have been conducted

  • both in our laboratory and also in other laboratories throughout the country that

  • have been asking the question of how can foods act like drugs of abuse in

  • terms of what happens in the brain

  • and so one of the things that we've learned is that when

  • we consume food it's reinforcing and it feels good.

  • And as a result that releases a neurochemical in the brain called

  • dopamine. Now typically when we eat a food for the very first time

  • that dopamine release occurs but it has more to do with the novelty of the

  • food

  • and so we want to be careful to remember that very first time we eat

  • new food

  • we need to pay attention so that dopamine signal loss to pay attention

  • so once we've consumed a food a few different times we know that it's

  • safe

  • doughnuts release dopamine in response to eating it because

  • we don't have to necessarily worry about that food causing us to be sick or to

  • get

  • ill from consuming it anymore there's no more

  • of a threat really in terms of survival and so the dopamine release

  • tends to attenuate or lessen with repeated exposures

  • Now on the other hand, drugs of abuse release dopamine every time they're

  • administered so every time someone administers nicotine, cocaine, morphine

  • pretty much any drug releases dopamine that's one of the hallmarks of drug

  • use

  • What's interesting though is that science has shown us that

  • when laboratory animals over consume sugar

  • it acts more like what you see with a drug

  • that every time the animals were eating sugar it's releasing dopamine

  • and so in many ways this pattern of release looks more like what you'd

  • expect to see with a drug and less like what you would expect

  • typically see with a food. There's been lots of clinical studies that have

  • gone on to

  • expand on this area of research showing changes in the brain that are

  • consistent with

  • alterations in addiction areas is in humans as well

  • and so it seems that the dopamine systems are perturbed

  • by overconsumption of sugar and highly palatable foods.

  • And its preservation occurs in a way that is similar to what you'd see with

  • an addiction to drugs.

  • So from our survey results we found that 40%

  • of adults ages 18 to 34

  • did not feel like their parents set

  • a good example or or gave them good guidelines for being healthy with

  • food consumption. We thought that was really interesting and

  • wondered if

  • the emerging science specific to that age group 18-34

  • that is something has changed to

  • perhaps prevent people from being able to provide guidelines or is it

  • the guidelines or

  • example I should say

  • has changed over the years in what parents are doing with food.

  • Yeah I think that particular age range

  • falls within the range I'm just outside at that age range so I feel like I can

  • relate to the participants in many ways

  • in that the guidelines that were provided

  • to adults in terms of healthy eating and what we should be feeding our children

  • really haven't been very good. We're only now

  • recently seeing serious discussion in my opinion about changing the food intake

  • guidelines about making changes to

  • you know how much recommended sugar is consumed each day

  • and we're also seeing you know some discussion and debate about changes in

  • nutrition labels, making nutrition information

  • nutrition facts label more apparent and more obvious so that people can

  • understand it better.

  • So I I think that you know by no fault of the parents of those

  • individuals between the ages 18 and 34 I

  • do believe that there just hasn't been a lot of good information provided

  • for parents to educate children about healthy eating practices.

  • I also think that you know we live in a culture now in which

  • mom and dad often both work there's many opportunities

  • you know for us to just simply grab something quick

  • or eating out and so cooking at home and taking the time to prepare

  • meals at home often falls to the wayside

  • and I think that the sort of long-term ramifications of that

  • haven't necessarily been taken very seriously until recently where we're now

  • seeing

  • issues related to obesity and more importantly I think it's issues related

  • to behavior change

  • and so when children are exposed to

  • certain types of eating practices that they

  • receive from their family life at home it's hard to break those habits later in

  • life.

  • So if you grow up drinking soda and having dessert every single night, it

  • becomes a way of life

  • that becomes the norm and so it's difficult to make those changes once you

  • become an adult. You start to have medical problems that are

  • potentially related to those behaviors. Right.

  • I think now we're starting to see a bit of a change in tide in that

  • you know we're starting to see recommendations being made by the World

  • Health Organization for instance to

  • change the recommended amount of sugar intake that children should be having

  • and it's a drastic reduction. It's much less than what

  • is currently being consumed much less

  • of what's presently available so I think that

  • over time we should see some additional changes and hopefully with the next

  • generation

  • they won't necessarily feel the way that this particular one does.

  • I want to take the time to thank Dr. Avena for her time today and the incredible

  • work

  • that you do in the research field and research realm

  • that really changes and guides a lot of the treatment that is out there.

  • Without researchers like you, we

  • we wouldn't be able to advance and to tailor the treatment in the way

  • that we need to. Without the research

  • in the findings in the science we wouldn't be able to provide

  • the effective treatment outcomes that that we're able to provide

  • based on based on that research and based on your findings and I just

  • wanted to thank you for hanging out with me today and for anyone who's

  • watching or listening I hope this provides more information about the

  • the problems that we're facing with food and the struggles that people

  • can have with food

  • and why they might be struggling and let you know that

  • Wellspring is a program that's out there to help and to provide the treatment

  • necessary

  • to get you on your way to a healthier lifestyle.

  • As a final thought I would say that there is evidence that

  • food addiction is real and this is something that can be affecting

  • adults and children and young adults as well

  • and I think that it's important for people to realize that

  • by taking an addiction approach to the addiction

  • process in terms of the treatment there is

  • evidence that it can be effective and people who have struggled with obesity

  • and overeating for many years

  • may find that looking at their problem through an addiction lens

  • can be the way to finally achieve whatever their goals are for healthy eating

  • and this isn't necessarily something that can be done alone and I think we know

  • from

  • looking at the history of addiction to other substances like drugs and alcohol

  • it's not easy it's not something that people often can do by themselves and so

  • finding the right resources and the right groups that can assist you

  • with your goals is the way to go.

My name is Eliza Kingsford I am a licensed psychotherapist specializing

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食物中毒は本当です - イライザ・キングスフォード、ニコール・アヴェナ博士とのハングアウト|ウェルスプリングキャンプ (Food Addiction is Real - Hangout with Eliza Kingsford, Dr. Nicole Avena | Wellspring Camps)

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    VoiceTube に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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