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  • Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. history, and today we have finally reached

  • the Clinton years. Bill Clinton and I are really quite similar,

  • actually. We were both brought up in the South. We both come from broken familieswell,

  • no, not actually. Also, I did not attended any Ivy League University. Yeah, I’m actually

  • nothing like Bill Clinton. Well, except for the southern thing, and also

  • both of us are married to women who are smarter than we are.

  • Mr. Green, Mr. Green? But he was president. Whatever, I’m still young Me From the Past!

  • Clinton wasn’t even governor of Arkansas until he was like (looks at computer)....oh,

  • crap, he was 32, I’m finished! INTRO

  • So Clinton’s presidency was focused on Domestic Policy and a sex scandalin fact his campaign

  • war room famously featured a sign that readIt’s the Economy, stupid.” His domestic

  • legacy is pretty complex, though, so were going to start with his foreign policy.

  • The Clinton years didn’t feature as many major foreign policy successes as Bush 41,

  • but Clinton did have his moments. Like his administration achieved a partial success

  • with the 1993 Oslo Accords when Israel recognized the legitimacy of the Palestinian Liberation

  • Organisation. However, that eventually resulted in the PLO

  • becoming progressively less powerful and as you may have noticed, it didn’t ultimately

  • achieve peace in the Middle East. Clinton was more successful in Yugoslavia

  • where he pushed NATO to actually do something for once in this case bombing, sending troops,

  • kinda something. Now there had been widespread ethnic cleansing

  • of Bosnian Muslims before the NATO intervention but the fighting ended with the Dayton Accords.

  • And then there’s the Rwandan genocide, which the Clinton administration did absolutely

  • nothing to prevent and where 800,000 people died in less than a month.

  • The Rwandan genocide is probably the international community's greatest failure in the 2nd half

  • of the 20th century and while certainly Clinton was among many people who were complicit to

  • that including like, me, yeahyou know... so far it’s not such a great foreign policy

  • record. Terrorism also became a bigger issue during

  • Clinton’s presidency. The World Trade Center was bombed for the 1st time, the U.S.S. Cole

  • was attacked. But the most destructive terrorist act during

  • Clinton’s presidency was of course committed by Americans - Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols

  • who blew up the Murrah Federal building in Oklahoma City.

  • Which brings us to an awkward transition from domestic terrorism to domestic policy.

  • So Bill Clinton was from Hope Arkansas and he ran as a centrist democrat who wanted to

  • do things differently. He wasn’t going to be inside the Washington beltway.

  • And he wasn’t going to be some old-fashioned liberal who was all about raising taxes funneling

  • billions of dollars to Snuffleupagus. That centrism made him very electable but

  • his first few domestic agenda items faltered, like he tried to end the ban on gay people

  • entering in the military but opposition led him to compromise with the famous Don’t

  • Ask Don’t Tell policy. Essentially you were allowed to be homosexual,

  • if you were in the military, you just weren’t allowed to acknowledge it.

  • And then there was the 1993 Health Care initiative led by Clinton’s wife, Hillary, which was

  • also a failure. By the 90’s the United States was the last

  • industrialized nation not to have universal health care and while Hillary Clinton’s

  • plan would have resulted in Americans having universal health care it was too complicated

  • to sell to us. Also, it faced very powerful opposition from

  • like drug companies, and insurers, and medical device makerslots of people.

  • But at least it had a working website. What’s that, Stan? There was no web? What did they

  • use, like a mobile app or something? There was no apps? I thought we were in modern history!

  • So on the heels of these failed policy initiatives in 1994 Democrats were swept out of Congress

  • and Republicans took control of both the Senate and the House.

  • The new speaker of the House, whose real name was Newt Gingrich, and who would later run

  • for president despite being named Newt Gingrich issued something called the Contract with

  • America. It promised to cut government, cut taxes,

  • cut regulation, overhaul welfare and end affirmative action -- and this led to a Government shutdown

  • in 1995 over an inability to reach a budget agreement between the Congress and the president.

  • Which in turn made all these new Congressional Republicans very unpopular with the American

  • people as a whole and played into Clinton’s political strategy oftriangulation.”

  • His strategy was to campaign against radical republicans while co-opting some of their

  • ideas. The most obvious example was his declaration

  • in January 1996 thatThe era of big government is over”.

  • Spoiler alert: It wasn’t. There has been no president since WWII who decreased the

  • size of the government. And that will change when never because all

  • of the things that actually cost the government a lot of money like Social Security and Medicare

  • are very popular and both of those programs benefit old people who vote disproportionately

  • because they have nothing to do since Murder She Wrote was cancelled.

  • However, Clinton did actually shrink parts of the government with policies like the Telecommunications

  • Act of 1996, which deregulated broadcasting. But Clinton’s signature economic policy

  • was Welfare Reformaka the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Actof 1996.

  • This law replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, which had given

  • money directly to poor mothers. But with Clinton’s welfare reform states

  • received block grants that came with strings attached including work requirements and time

  • limits for total benefits. Welfare rolls plummeted and many economists

  • see this as the rare bipartisan victory in the 1990’s but it’s still controversial

  • and many liberal people felt like Bill Clinton had betrayed them.

  • But Clinton still remained popular through much of his presidency largely because it

  • really is the economy stupid - and the economy got better.

  • In fact by the time Clinton left office unemployment was below 4% which hadn’t happened since

  • the 1960s. That meant there should have been inflation

  • but somehow there wasn’t, possibly because of increased global competition that kept

  • wages down and also energy prices that were remarkably low as worldwide oil production

  • increased. Microchips made it possible to develop loads

  • of new products, like personal computers and DVD players, and video games, and cell phones,

  • and Crash Course. And computers completely transformed the American

  • workplace. I mean until the 90’s people would go to

  • work, and they would sit in their offices at their desks, and they would… I don’t

  • know what did because they didn’t have computers! How did anything get done before computers,

  • I mean how were books written, how was the Godfather edited, how was this globe made,

  • I mean did some individual’s human hand sculpt it from clay?

  • So no wonder the economy got better we had stumbled on the biggest innovation since like

  • wheels. And during the Clinton administration we didn’t

  • just have computers we had computers that began to connect to each other.

  • I’m referring of course to the Internet which might have remained like a military

  • communications network if computer scientists and entrepreneurs hadn’t worked out how

  • to use it to sell things. This was the beginning of the e-commerce boom,

  • which would be followed by an e-commerce bust, but then another e-commerce boom, which would

  • eventually give us websites where you can buy Crash Course DVD’s, like DFTBA.com,

  • and also lesser known e-commerce sites like Ebay and Amazon.

  • Oh, it’s time for the mystery document? The rules here are simple.

  • I read the mystery document, I either get the author correct, or I get shocked. Okay

  • here we go. “The information highway will extend the

  • electronic marketplace and make it the ultimate go-between, the universal middleman. Often

  • the only humans involved in a transaction will be the actual buyer and the seller. All

  • the goods for sale in the world will be available for you to examine, compare, and often customize.

  • When you want to buy something youll be able to tell your computer to find if for

  • you at the best price offered by any acceptable source or ask your computer tohaggle

  • with the computers of various sellers. Information about vendors and their products and services

  • will be available to any computer connected to the highway. Servers distributed worldwide

  • will accept bids, resolve offers into completed transactions, control authentication and security,

  • and handle all other aspects of the marketplace, including the transfer of funds. This will

  • carry us into a new world of low-friction, low-overhead capitalism, in which market information

  • will be plentiful and transaction costs low. It will be a shopper’s heaven.”

  • Stan, that sounds like something that Amazon founder Jeff Bezos would say. No? Dangit,

  • Bill Gates. Let me tell you how much I enjoy this, none.

  • Oh, the information super highway it made all of this possible including my shock pen.

  • Ahhh! Now one of the lessons of history is that

  • good news for someone is almost always bad news for someone else and that was certainly

  • the case with the longest period of economic expansion in American history.

  • Increased use of Information Technology facilitated the globalization of manufacturing and the

  • pressure to manufacture cheaply pushed wages down and encouraged companies to locate factories

  • in countries with lower environmental regulations and also lower wages.

  • That’s great for companies, it’s good for prices, arguably good for workers in the

  • developing world, not so great for the environment or for American workers.

  • The deregulation of finance also contributed to global growth. Capital could flow more

  • easily anywhere in the world but this also meant that it could flow out easily, making

  • financial crises more likely and more widespread. The growth of free flowing capital in the

  • 1990’s created a world in which the crash of 2008 was more or less inevitable.

  • But before that we had the crash of 2000. As money flowed into the stock market, bubbles

  • developed. And in some ways this was more problematic than it used to be because a much

  • greater percentage of Americans had become investors in stocks - an actual majority of

  • them by the year 2000. And many of these investors were buying into

  • these hot new dot-com stocks, in fact the tech-heavy NASDAQ exchange soared in 1998

  • and 1999. And then it lost 80% of its value in 2000

  • when the bubble burst. It turns out that the Pets.com business model

  • of selling you dog food at a loss is not a sustainable business model.

  • Although to be fair Amazon has been selling stuff at a loss now for 20 years and theyre

  • still at it. Soyou knowmaybe I’m wrong.

  • So during this period real wages grew but the gains were very unequal like when you

  • adjust for inflation, wages of nonsupervisory workers remained below what they were in the

  • 1970s. And for the poor it was even worse. Our old

  • friend Eric Foner reports thatAverage after-tax income of the poorest 1/5 of Americans

  • fell 12 percent, and that of the middle 1/5 decreased by 3 percent.”[1] Meanwhile, the

  • income of the top fifth increased 38%. Now of course this trend towards inequality

  • and the majority of jobs being created in low wage, insecure, service industries would

  • continue into the 21st century. But the economic and political pictures that

  • weve sought to paint only tell half of the story of the 1990s, because it was also

  • a decade characterized by what has been called the Culture Wars.

  • A big part of this was immigration, which rose enormously after immigration reform in

  • 1965. Between 1965 and 2000 the US saw almost 24 million immigrants arrive, compared with

  • 27 million during the peak immigration period between 1880 and 1924.

  • Fully half of new immigrants came from Latin America and the Caribbean, 35% came from Asia,

  • only 10% came from Europe and most of them were from the former USSR and the Balkans.

  • As had always been the case, most immigrants were attracted by labor opportunities, but

  • now more were highly educated. In fact, 40% had college educations. Let’s go to the

  • thoughtbubble. Latinos were the largest immigrant group by

  • far, with Mexicans making up the largest contingent and by 2007 Latinos would replace African

  • Americans as the second largest ethnic group. Latinos suffered disproportionate poverty,

  • and, despite significant economic gains during the 1990s, African Americans still found their

  • economic opportunities limited. According to Eric Foner, “In 2007, the total assets

  • of the median white family […] stood at $87,000. For black families, the figure was

  • $5,400.”[2] Diversity also increased in other ways like

  • single parent families became more accepted which was essential as 50% of marriages ended

  • in divorce. Out-of-wedlock births declined, primarily because teenagers were practicing

  • safer sex. And teens and adults were cohabiting before or instead of marriage. Eventually

  • the Mom, Dad, and 2.4 kids standard American household became only one of a number of accepted

  • options for families. Gay and trans people became increasingly visible

  • in the national consciousness as a result of the GLBT rights movement and it becoming

  • safer for people to come out of the closet. On the other hand, the AIDS epidemic, which

  • disproportionately affected the GLBT community was disastrous. By 2000 400,000 Americans

  • had died of AIDS. Then there’s the depressing rise in imprisonment.

  • Politicians competed with each other to see who could be tougher on crime and as the War

  • on Drugs continued, many state legislatures passedthree strikeslaws meaning that

  • people who were convicted of three felonies would go to prison for life.

  • The number of Americans in prison skyrocketed. By 2008 it was 2.3 million, ONE QUARTER of

  • the total number of inmates on planet Earth. Thanks, thoughtbubble. Although I have to

  • say I thought this was going to be a happy one, I mean the economy is growing, things

  • are getting better for people in the GLBTQ community, and then boom, boom, boom, it’s

  • all terrible! I don’t want to underplay the many benefits

  • of our increased prosperity and diversity but all of this multiculturalism and change

  • made for a very tense political atmosphere. To some people it seemed like the open free-wheeling

  • liberalism of the 60’s had run amuck, and those people really started to hate the Clintons.

  • But among Bill Clinton’s many flaws: facelessness, cigar smoking, his biggest was his inability

  • to stop cheating on his wife. Clinton had dodged accusations of extramarital

  • skoodilypooping while running for the presidential nomination which contributed to his unfortunate

  • Slick Williemoniker. But while he was president, Clinton’s former

  • employee Paula Jones sued him for sexual harassment that had occurred, allegedly occurred, I guess

  • it probably occurred, allegedly occurred while he was governor of Arkansas.

  • While gathering evidence for that lawsuit, investigators discovered that the president

  • had carried on a sexual relationship with a young intern named Monica Lewinsky.

  • The President denied havingsexual relationswith Monica Lewinsky which was a lie unless

  • you are President Bill Clinton and have a very narrow definition ofsexual relations.”

  • That lie to a justice department official was the basis for articles of impeachment

  • for perjury and obstruction of justice. And so it was that the president of the United

  • States was impeached for saying that he didn’t have sex with a woman that he did have sex

  • with, unless of course you define sex very narrowly, and it all depends on what your

  • definition of is is, and etc. In early 1999, Clinton was acquitted of these

  • charges in a congressional vote that went right down party lines and he served out the

  • remainder of his term but he was significantly weakened.

  • Also, he served out the remainder of his presidency sleeping on the couch.

  • So the 90s were a really pivotal decade to the world we live in right now, a globalized,

  • multicultural, instagram-filtered world But as we became more globally connected political

  • divisions grew within the United States. And this became especially problematic because

  • with the growth of the Internet it was easier than ever to only hear voices that you already

  • know you agree with. To live inside of an echo chamber where your news doesn’t necessarily

  • resemble your neighbor’s news. In some ways Bill Clinton directed these changes

  • but in most ways they directed him. But that’s what I find so fascinating about history,

  • even the fancy people who get their heads on the chalkboard, even they are subject to

  • historical forces. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week.

  • Crash Course is made with all the help of these nice people and it’s possible because

  • of your support through Subbable.com, a voluntary subscription service that allows you to pay

  • monthly for Crash Course whatever you want so that we can keep it free for everyone forever.

  • Youll find lots of cool perks at Subbable like a chance to sponsor videos, and signed

  • posters and stuff, so please check it out. You can click here on my face or there is

  • a link in the video info below. Thank you so much for watching Crash Course, thanks

  • for making it possible, and as we say in my hometown, “Don’t forget to be awesome.”

  • ________________ [1] Foner. Give me Liberty ebook version p.

  • 1141 [2] Foner, Give me Liberty. Ebook version

  • p. 1150.

Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. history, and today we have finally reached

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クリントン時代、あるいは1990年代。クラッシュ・コース アメリカ史 #45 (The Clinton Years, or the 1990s: Crash Course US History #45)

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    Jane に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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