B1 中級 741 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
In the first part of this lesson,
we looked at adverb clauses of time,
and I showed you how to reduce them.
How to shorten the clauses to phrases.
We can also reduce adverb clauses of reason.
These clauses begin with words like because, as, since.
They answer the question why.
Again, we mostly use a present participle。
the -ing form of a verb
to form these phrases.
That's because most of the time, we use active verbs
Here's an example. Because the mother heard strange sounds, she grew worried.
"Heard" is an active verb.
The mother did something.
She heard strange sounds.
"Because the mother heard strange sounds"
can be reduced.
Hearing strange sounds, the mother grew worried.
The steps should be familiar.
We don't need these subordinating conjunctions in the phrases.
They're understood.
Our new sentence:
Note how we use negative words
when we shorten adverb clauses to phrases.
It's quite simple.
Here's an example from the story.
Focus on the phrase.
Do you see the word order?
We put the negative word before the present participle.
It's that simple.
Now, can you understand what the full adverb clause would be?
If we wanted to change that phrase back to a full adverb clause of reason,
We need a subordinating conjunction.
- A word that expresses a reason.
Let's use BECAUSE.
Subject: she.
And a verb.
In this case, complete with a helping verb in the past tense.
Didn't feel.
Is that clear?
Up to now, I've only mentioned use of the present participle.
When we change an adverb clause to a phrase,
we sometimes need to use a past participle.
The -ed form of a regular verb.
It's that third form:
Do - did - done.
The third form.
And we'll do this for two reasons.
We may need to show an earlier time.
Or we may need to express a passive meaning.
Passive verbs emphasize that the subject is receiving an action.
Let me give you some examples.
Here's a line from the story.
This phrase actually expresses both a reason
and an earlier event.
The full adverb clause would be:
So we're changing an adverb clause with a perfect form.
We need to use HAVING
plus a past participle.
This form explains a sequence of events.
So when your adverb clause has a perfect verb form,
present or past,
use HAVING + a past participle.
This will show that you're referring to an earlier event.
Now, if I only wanted to emphasize
the order of events and not a reason,
I could just use a time word
and a present participle
and say something like this:
Compare those two sentences.
In the end, they're not that different.
We also need to use a past participle
when we have a passive verb in the adverb clause.
Passive means that someone or something is receiving an action.
Here's an example from the story.
What would the full adverb clause be?
It's an adverb clause of time.
"Was reassured" is a passive verb.
It's a form of BE plus a past participle.
Changing that to a phrase,
we keep both parts.
The form of BE takes the -ing form.
The present participle.
The main verb remains a past participle.
Now here's where it gets a little tricky.
We have variations.
This sentence could also be written as:
Why did she decide to investigate?
Some might choose to write:
Personally, I think this is a little too much.
The time word "after"
already establishes the order of events.
So the helping verb HAVE is really unnecessary.
Concise is usually best.
So consider this last variation.
All the sentences basically say the same thing.
But this last one is nice
because it's so concise.
We can remove all helping verbs
and use only the past participle,
understanding that it carries a passive meaning.
Something affected the mother.
She was reassured.
So now you know why you might need the help of a past participle.
But most of the time when you're changing an adverb clause to a phrase,
you'll be working with present participles.
You'll be changing clauses with active verbs.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

Reducing Adverb Clauses to Phrases (3 of 4) - Advanced English Grammar-

741 タグ追加 保存
Cai Xin Liu 2016 年 8 月 20 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔