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  • When we talk about corruption,


  • there are typical types of individuals that spring to mind.


  • There's the former Soviet megalomaniacs.


  • Saparmurat Niyazov, he was one of them.

    サパルムラト・ニヤゾフも その一人

  • Until his death in 2006,

    彼は 2006年に亡くなるまで

  • he was the all-powerful leader of Turkmenistan,


  • a Central Asian country rich in natural gas.

    天然ガス資源が豊富な その中央アジアの国で

  • Now, he really loved to issue presidential decrees.

    ニヤゾフは 大統領命令を出すのが 本当に大好きでした

  • And one renamed the months of the year

    あるときは その年の月の呼び名を変更

  • including after himself and his mother.


  • He spent millions of dollars


  • creating a bizarre personality cult,


  • and his crowning glory was the building


  • of a 40-foot-high gold-plated statue of himself

    高さ12メートルの 金メッキされたニヤゾフ像

  • which stood proudly in the capital's central square


  • and rotated to follow the sun.


  • He was a slightly unusual guy.

    ニヤゾフは ちょっと風変わりな人間でした

  • And then there's that cliché,

    そして 型にはまった―

  • the African dictator or minister or official.

    アフリカの独裁者や大臣 役人がいます

  • There's Teodorín Obiang.


  • So his daddy is president for life of Equatorial Guinea,

    彼の父親は 赤道ギニアの終身大統領で

  • a West African nation that has exported


  • billions of dollars of oil since the 1990s

    1990年代以降 何十億ドルもの石油を輸出していますが

  • and yet has a truly appalling human rights record.

    本当にあきれるような 人権侵害の歴史があります

  • The vast majority of its people


  • are living in really miserable poverty


  • despite an income per capita that's on a par


  • with that of Portugal.


  • So Obiang junior, well, he buys himself

    オビアン・ジュニアは 自分のために

  • a $30 million mansion in Malibu, California.

    カリフォルニア州のマリブに 3千万ドルの豪邸を買っています

  • I've been up to its front gates.


  • I can tell you it's a magnificent spread.


  • He bought an €18 million art collection

    そして 1,800万ユーロの 美術品コレクションも購入

  • that used to belong to fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent,

    ファッション・デザイナーの イブ・サン・ローランが所有していたものです

  • a stack of fabulous sports cars,

    さらには 豪華なスポーツ・カー

  • some costing a million dollars apiece --

    1台 100万ドルはくだらないのを何台もです

  • oh, and a Gulfstream jet, too.

    それから ガルフストリームのジェット機も

  • Now get this:


  • Until recently, he was earning an official monthly salary

    最近まで 彼の公務給は

  • of less than 7,000 dollars.


  • And there's Dan Etete.

    そして ダン・エテート

  • Well, he was the former oil minister of Nigeria


  • under President Abacha,


  • and it just so happens he's a convicted money launderer too.

    マネーローンダリングでも 有罪とされています

  • We've spent a great deal of time


  • investigating a $1 billion --

    調査をしました 10億ドル―

  • that's right, a $1 billion

    そうです 10億ドルの―

  • oil deal that he was involved with,


  • and what we found was pretty shocking,

    結果は とてもショッキングなものでした

  • but more about that later.

    詳しくは あとでお話しましょう

  • So it's easy to think that corruption happens

    汚職について こう思うのは簡単です 汚職なんて―

  • somewhere over there,


  • carried out by a bunch of greedy despots


  • and individuals up to no good in countries


  • that we, personally, may know very little about

    私たちが 直接には ほとんど知らない国

  • and feel really unconnected to


  • and unaffected by what might be going on.

    影響もないような国で やっていること

  • But does it just happen over there?

    でも 本当に遠くで起こっていることですか?

  • Well, at 22, I was very lucky.

    22歳の私は とても幸運でした

  • My first job out of university


  • was investigating the illegal trade in African ivory.


  • And that's how my relationship with corruption really began.

    そこから 汚職問題との関わりが 始まったのです

  • In 1993, with two friends who were colleagues,

    1993年 友人で元同僚でもあった―

  • Simon Taylor and Patrick Alley,


  • we set up an organization called Global Witness.

    グローバル・ウィットネスという 団体を立ち上げました

  • Our first campaign was investigating the role

    最初の活動として 違法伐採が

  • of illegal logging in funding the war in Cambodia.

    どう カンボジア内戦の資金源 となっているかを調べました

  • So a few years later, and it's now 1997,


  • and I'm in Angola undercover investigating blood diamonds.

    私は アンゴラで「ブラッド・ダイアモンド」の 潜入調査をしていました

  • Perhaps you saw the film,


  • the Hollywood film "Blood Diamond,"


  • the one with Leonardo DiCaprio.


  • Well, some of that sprang from our work.

    一部は 私たちの仕事が元になっています

  • Luanda, it was full of land mine victims

    首都ルアンダでは たくさんの地雷の被害者が

  • who were struggling to survive on the streets


  • and war orphans living in sewers under the streets,

    戦争孤児が 地下の下水管で生活していました

  • and a tiny, very wealthy elite

    そして ごく少数の金持ちエリートだけが

  • who gossiped about shopping trips to Brazil and Portugal.

    ブラジルやポルトガルへの 買い物旅行のおしゃべりをしている

  • And it was a slightly crazy place.

    そんな ちょっと狂った場所でした

  • So I'm sitting in a hot and very stuffy hotel room

    私は 暑くて息苦しいホテルの部屋で

  • feeling just totally overwhelmed.

    ただただ 打ちのめされていました

  • But it wasn't about blood diamonds.


  • Because I'd been speaking to lots of people there

    地元の人たちと たくさん話して

  • who, well, they talked about a different problem:


  • that of a massive web of corruption on a global scale

    グローバルな規模で 汚職が蜘蛛の巣状に広まり

  • and millions of oil dollars going missing.

    何百万ドルものオイル・マネーが そこに飲み込まれている

  • And for what was then a very small organization

    当時 私たちは 本当に小さな組織で

  • of just a few people,


  • trying to even begin to think how we might tackle that

    どうやって汚職問題に立ち向かうか 考えるだけでも

  • was an enormous challenge.


  • And in the years that I've been,

    それでも 私が―

  • and we've all been campaigning and investigating,

    私たちが力を合わせて 運動し 調査をした何年かの間

  • I've repeatedly seen that what makes corruption

    私は何度も見てきました 汚職を―

  • on a global, massive scale possible,

    グローバルな 膨大なスケールにしているのは

  • well it isn't just greed or the misuse of power


  • or that nebulous phrase "weak governance."


  • I mean, yes, it's all of those,

    ええ これらは全て関係あります

  • but corruption, it's made possible by the actions

    でも 汚職を可能たらしめているのは

  • of global facilitators.

    グローバルに暗躍する ファシリテーターの存在なのです

  • So let's go back to some of those people I talked about earlier.

    さきほどお話した人たちのことを 振り返ってみましょう

  • Now, they're all people we've investigated,

    私たちは 全員を調査しましたが

  • and they're all people who couldn't do what they do alone.

    誰も 一人では何もできなかったんです

  • Take Obiang junior. Well, he didn't end up

    オビアン・ジュニアを 例にとってもそう

  • with high-end art and luxury houses without help.

    彼は 助けなしには 高級美術品や豪華な家を手に入れられなかった

  • He did business with global banks.

    彼が取引をしたのは グローバル銀行

  • A bank in Paris held accounts of companies controlled by him,

    パリの銀行に 彼が管理する企業の口座が複数あり

  • one of which was used to buy the art,


  • and American banks, well, they funneled


  • 73 million dollars into the States,


  • some of which was used to buy that California mansion.

    そのいくらかが カリフォルニアの豪邸購入に使われました

  • And he didn't do all of this in his own name either.

    オビアン・ジュニアは 全て 自分の名義でやったわけではなく

  • He used shell companies.


  • He used one to buy the property, and another,

    一つは その不動産を買うのに使い

  • which was in somebody else's name,

    また別の 他人名義の会社から

  • to pay the huge bills it cost to run the place.


  • And then there's Dan Etete.

    ダン・エテートの場合は こう

  • Well, when he was oil minister,


  • he awarded an oil block now worth over a billion dollars

    今の価値で10億ドル以上相当の 石油掘削地を

  • to a company that, guess what, yeah,


  • he was the hidden owner of.

    その会社の真の所有者こそ エテートです

  • Now, it was then much later traded on

    そして その採掘権は後に

  • with the kind assistance of the Nigerian government --

    ナイジェリア政府の ある種の支援のもと―

  • now I have to be careful what I say here


  • to subsidiaries of Shell and the Italian Eni,

    二大石油会社である シェル社と イタリアのエニ社の子会社に

  • two of the biggest oil companies around.


  • So the reality is, is that the engine of corruption,

    つまり 実際 汚職の原動力は

  • well, it exists far beyond the shores of countries

    赤道ギニア ナイジェリアや トルクメニスタンといった国の

  • like Equatorial Guinea or Nigeria or Turkmenistan.


  • This engine, well, it's driven


  • by our international banking system,


  • by the problem of anonymous shell companies,


  • and by the secrecy that we have afforded


  • big oil, gas and mining operations,


  • and, most of all, by the failure of our politicians

    そして何よりも 政治家が美辞麗句を並べるだけで

  • to back up their rhetoric and do something


  • really meaningful and systemic to tackle this stuff.

    本当に意味があり 効果のあることを しなかったことです

  • Now let's take the banks first.

    まず 銀行について話しましょう

  • Well, it's not going to come as any surprise


  • for me to tell you that banks accept dirty money,

    銀行というのは 汚いお金も受け入れます

  • but they prioritize their profits in other destructive ways too.

    ただ それだけでなく 利益を最優先し 破壊的な方法も使います

  • For example, in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    例えば マレーシアのサラワクでは

  • Now this region, it has just five percent

    今や 森林の5%しか 手つかずで残っていません

  • of its forests left intact. Five percent.


  • So how did that happen?

    なぜ こうなったのか?

  • Well, because an elite and its facilitators

    あるエリートと そのファシリテーターたちが

  • have been making millions of dollars


  • from supporting logging on an industrial scale

    産業規模での森林伐採を 許してきたからです

  • for many years.


  • So we sent an undercover investigator in

    私たちは 潜入調査員を送りこみ

  • to secretly film meetings with members of the ruling elite,

    支配階級のエリート間の会議の様子を こっそり映像におさめました

  • and the resulting footage, well, it made some people very angry,

    撮影したことを とても怒った人たちもいますが

  • and you can see that on YouTube,


  • but it proved what we had long suspected,

    これにより私たちが長い間疑ってきたことを ついに証明できました

  • because it showed how the state's chief minister,

    というのも 州の首相は

  • despite his later denials,

    本人は 後に否定をしますが

  • used his control over land and forest licenses


  • to enrich himself and his family.


  • And HSBC, well, we know that HSBC bankrolled

    香港上海銀行(HSBC)が この地域の最大の伐採企業に

  • the region's largest logging companies


  • that were responsible for some of that destruction

    それらの会社が サラワクなどの

  • in Sarawak and elsewhere.


  • The bank violated its own sustainability policies in the process,

    銀行は 自らの サステナビリティ・ポリシーに違反し

  • but it earned around 130 million dollars.


  • Now shortly after our exposé,


  • very shortly after our exposé earlier this year,

    今年初めに暴露をして 本当にすぐ

  • the bank announced a policy review on this.

    銀行は 本件に関して 方針見直しを表明しました

  • And is this progress? Maybe,

    これは進展? たぶん

  • but we're going to be keeping a very close eye

    でも 私たちは 本件の成り行きを

  • on that case.


  • And then there's the problem of anonymous shell companies.

    そして 匿名の幽霊会社の問題があります

  • Well, we've all heard about what they are, I think,

    それがどんなものか 良くご存知でしょう

  • and we all know they're used quite a bit


  • by people and companies who are trying to avoid


  • paying their proper dues to society,

    社会への適正な義務 つまり税金の支払いを

  • also known as taxes.


  • But what doesn't usually come to light

    でも なかなか明るみに出ることがないのは

  • is how shell companies are used to steal

    幽霊会社が 貧しい国々から

  • huge sums of money, transformational sums of money,

    多額のお金 とてつもない額のお金を

  • from poor countries.


  • In virtually every case of corruption that we've investigated,

    私たちが調査をした 実質的に全ての汚職事件で

  • shell companies have appeared,


  • and sometimes it's been impossible to find out

    ときには その取引に 一体誰が関わっているのか

  • who is really involved in the deal.


  • A recent study by the World Bank

    世界銀行は 最近

  • looked at 200 cases of corruption.

    汚職事件200件を対象とした 研究をしました

  • It found that over 70 percent of those cases

    それによれば 汚職事件の70%以上において

  • had used anonymous shell companies,


  • totaling almost 56 billion dollars.

    取引総額は 560億ドルにも上ります

  • Now many of these companies were in America

    今や これらの会社の多くは アメリカや

  • or the United Kingdom,


  • its overseas territories and Crown dependencies,


  • and so it's not just an offshore problem,

    ですから 海外の問題ではなく

  • it's an on-shore one too.


  • You see, shell companies, they're central

    ご覧の通り 幽霊会社は

  • to the secret deals which may benefit wealthy elites

    秘密取引の中核となっており その取引が潤すのは 裕福なエリート

  • rather than ordinary citizens.


  • One striking recent case that we've investigated

    最近 私たちが調べた中で 顕著だったケースでは

  • is how the government in the Democratic Republic of Congo


  • sold off a series of valuable, state-owned mining assets

    価値の高い 国有の鉱業財産を

  • to shell companies in the British Virgin Islands.

    英領ヴァージン諸島の幽霊会社に 売り払っていました

  • So we spoke to sources in country,


  • trawled through company documents and other information

    会社書類やその他書類を 徹底的に調べ

  • trying to piece together a really true picture of the deal.

    その取引の実態を あぶり出そうとしました

  • And we were alarmed to find that these shell companies

    私たちはビックリしました これらの幽霊会社が

  • had quickly flipped many of the assets on

    すぐに多くの財産を 多額の利益と引き換えに

  • for huge profits to major international mining companies

    ロンドンに上場する 国際的な大鉄鉱企業に

  • listed in London.


  • Now, the Africa Progress Panel, led by Kofi Annan,

    コフィー・アナン氏が代表の アフリカ進捗パネルは

  • they've calculated that Congo may have lost

    コンゴは これらの取引によって 130億ドル以上を

  • more than 1.3 billion dollars from these deals.


  • That's almost twice

    それは コンゴで

  • the country's annual health and education budget combined.

    保健 教育にあてられる年間予算を あわせた額の ほぼ2倍です

  • And will the people of Congo, will they ever get their money back?

    コンゴの人たちは お金を取り戻せるのでしょうか?

  • Well, the answer to that question,


  • and who was really involved and what really happened,

    本当は誰が関わって 何が起こったのか

  • well that's going to probably remain locked away

    それはおそらく 明かされることはなく 秘密は―

  • in the secretive company registries of the British Virgin Islands

    英領ヴァージン諸島などの 会社登記簿の中に眠ったまま

  • and elsewhere unless we all do something about it.

    私たちが何かしない限り 明るみに出ることはありません

  • And how about the oil, gas and mining companies?

    では 石油、ガス、鉱業企業については どうでしょうか?

  • Okay, maybe it's a bit of a cliché to talk about them.

    それらについて語るのは 今さら感があるかもしれません

  • Corruption in that sector, no surprise.

    このセクターに汚職があるのは 当然です

  • There's corruption everywhere, so why focus on that sector?

    汚職はどこにでもあるのに なぜそのセクターを取り上げるのか?

  • Well, because there's a lot at stake.


  • In 2011, natural resource exports

    2011年 天然資源の輸出は

  • outweighed aid flows by almost 19 to one

    提供された援助を上回り 19倍になります

  • in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Nineteen to one.

    アフリカ アジア ラテンアメリカでそう 19倍です

  • Now that's a hell of a lot of schools and universities


  • and hospitals and business startups,


  • many of which haven't materialized and never will

    その多くは 実現されることがないでしょう

  • because some of that money has simply been stolen away.

    その資金の一部が 盗み取られているのですから

  • Now let's go back to the oil and mining companies,


  • and let's go back to Dan Etete and that $1 billion deal.

    ダン・エテートは 10億ドルの取引に関わっていました

  • And now forgive me, I'm going to read the next bit

    ここから 少し原稿を読ませてもらいます ご了承ください

  • because it's a very live issue, and our lawyers

    まだ進行中の案件で 弁護士が

  • have been through this in some detail


  • and they want me to get it right.


  • Now, on the surface, the deal appeared straightforward.

    表面上 その取引は単純そうに見えます

  • Subsidiaries of Shell and Eni


  • paid the Nigerian government for the block.

    その発掘権のため ナイジェリア政府にお金を支払った

  • The Nigerian government transferred

    ナイジェリア政府は それと全く同じ金額を

  • precisely the same amount, to the very dollar,

    1ドル違わず 幽霊会社が保有する口座に

  • to an account earmarked for a shell company


  • whose hidden owner was Etete.

    その隠された所有者が エテートです

  • Now, that's not bad going for a convicted money launderer.

    マネー・ロンダリングで有罪とされたのだから そんなものです

  • And here's the thing.

    でも 問題はここからです

  • After many months of digging around

    私たちは 何ヶ月もかけて調査し

  • and reading through hundreds of pages of court documents,


  • we found evidence that, in fact,