字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント let's continue our discussion of market sensing, moving from environmental analysis to the topic of research and consumer behavior. specifically will be discussing consumer behavior as part of that the purchase decision process and problem-solving behavior topics of consumer behavior. let's start by defining what we mean by consumer behavior. there we're talking about the action a buyer takes in purchasing a product, using a product and disposing of a product. so when we're talking about consumer behavior we're talking about all the actions before, after and during product use. I want to show you a couple illustrations of consumer behavior. let's look at the differences of and how men and women view purchasing greeting cards by looking at this Budweiser commercial it's perfect. so I think that that particular YouTube video illustrates perfectly the differences between most men and women when they're buying a greeting card like a Valentine's Day card or something like that. so those describe consumer behavior from the perspective of what they did before and during product use. let's look how marketers have changed tuna salad based on the study consumer behavior. let's look here at starkist tuna and if will look at the reasons people don't eat more tuna on the go or to take it to lunch -- it deals a lot with smell. and everything you have to take with you to use tuna at work. sound to to handle this problem for consumers their package includes ready-made tuna salad you don't even have to mix the tuna with any mayonaise and relish anymore. it's already made for you. there are six crackers, a serving spoon to put the salad on the crackers, a napkin, a mint afterwards so that you don't have bad breath. I would challenge you to see what missing. what still don't they understand about why more people don't eat tuna for lunch? what happens after they eat this tuna pack? did they have to dispose of the product? and when they do dispose of the product, is there a problems that's solved? do they put it in the trash can and you still continue to get that tuna smell? I would like to suggest that way a better way to meet consumer need and better understand consumer behavior would be to perhaps included a ziplock type bag in that packet so that would be easy to dispose of everything when you are done. so how do people go about buying, using and consuming products. what I'd like to introduce now is the consumer decision-making process. and people who don't understand marketing tend to focus on how can we get people to buy. and while that's a long-term goal for marketers, marketers realize that individual consumers go through a process where before they can buy or purchase, they first have to recognize they have a problem or need. We would define that as the difference between what they actually have and what they desire. as so when a person has a difference between what they have what they desire, they then recognized that they have a problem or a need and will begin to search for alternatives to help them solve that problem. so we define problem recognition as the difference between actual and desired. information searched then is when they would look to some internal sources, basically what they might remember about different ways to solve this problem or different brands, but they also would look to some external source like personal sources -- being their friends, their family, their coworkers. they might also look to public sources -- things that they see in news publications or consumer reports or on social media by people who aren't necessarily their friends or family and are not the marketer of the products or services. and they also use many external source that are developed by marketers -- advertisements, web page, personal salespeople, all external support sources. so i'd like to ask you right now what external source do you think people trust the least? personal sources -- their friends and family? public sources -- things they might see in the media that not paid advertising or promotion? or marketer sources -- information about a product from the marketer? they probably trust marketers sources least and personal sources the most. that's why it's so important for marketers to have satisfied customers so that the word of mouth generated by personal sources is more positive influence on people. so again we're talking about when consumers make a decision to buy the first thing they have to do is recognize they have a need or problem. they then use internal and external sources to search for information. they then begin to evaluate various alternatives. and when they evaluate alternative one thing they'll do in their mind or perhaps even on paper is come up with some of the evaluative criteria that they would use. keep in mind these evaluative criteria may not all have equal weight. for example perhaps the most important thing to someone choosing a college is price and class size. to another person the most important criteria might be majors offered and location. regardless consumers have some sort of evaluative criteria that they use when they are evaluating different brands in their consideration set. the consideration set would be the list of acceptable brands that they would consider. so if it's a very important purchase a consumer might actually write down a pro and con list or a little chart. but if it's not very important or purchase or a purchase in which they have a high level of involvement, they may simply do this in their head. for example you can see how this consumer thinks about brand A B and C. and it might be in this case because what is most important is price and class size, they would choose brand A. so this explains how consumers go about evaluating alternatives. so again, as we talk about the consumer problem-solving process, we've talked about problem recognition, information search Evaluation of alternates and then purchase. by the way not all not all time when we go through this process do we end up purchasing. it might be that we go through this process and say what I have is adequate. I don't need to purchase a new car or I don't need to go back to college. but at some point, if they do decide to purchase, they will select an outlet -- and a number of factors can have huge impact here. for example type of financing, delivery or just plain availability of the product might make them to choose another alternative than they had selected. oftentimes after person purchases they experience what is called post purchased satisfaction or dis-satisfaction. and if it's dis-satisfaction we call that cognitive dissonance or buyers remorse. when we say cognitive it means thinking and when we say dissonance in it means unbalanced. so if you have unbalanced thinking about a purchase, you question whether or not you made the right decision. something I'd like to point out here is that all of a marketers efforts are not necessarily directed just at problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternative and purchase. many times seeing an advertisement or promotion about something that you recently purchased helps you to eliminate cognitive dissonance and in your mind solidify that you didn't make a good purchase. one thing I want emphasized is you don't go through this process with same level of intensity or concern for all products you buy. in other words -- depending upon your level of involvement with a particular product or product category -- you might go through this process very very quickly and doing so you would use what's called routine problem-solving behavior. so typically when you want to buy a bottle of ketchup, you don't spend much time going through this process. and in fact you probably don't do any post purchase evaluation unless product doesn't perform as expected. if this product you're buying is very important to you and you have a high-level involvement here because it's very expensive or there's a lot of risk involved or it's going to reflect significantly on your personal image, you might take a lot of time going through this process. in this case you will be using what's called extended problem solving. a girl buying her wedding dress probably uses extended problem-solving. very rarely would they buy the first one they tried on even if they liked it best with out first trying other alternatives. and products that are purchased with some level of involvement between these two levels would use what is called called limited problem solving. so you're going to buy a blender for example or a new outfit or something like that, you would probably use limited problem solving. so I just wanted to illustrate here for you the beginning of the the concept consumer behavior and the consumer buying decision process.