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  • let's continue our discussion of market sensing,

  • moving from environmental analysis to the

  • topic of research and consumer behavior.

  • specifically will be discussing consumer behavior

  • as part of that the purchase decision process

  • and problem-solving behavior topics of consumer behavior.

  • let's start by defining what we mean

  • by consumer behavior. there we're talking about the action

  • a buyer takes in purchasing

  • a product, using a product

  • and disposing of a product. so when we're talking about consumer behavior

  • we're talking about all the actions

  • before, after and during product

  • use. I want to show you a couple illustrations of

  • consumer behavior. let's look at the differences of

  • and how men and women view

  • purchasing greeting cards by looking at this

  • Budweiser commercial

  • it's perfect. so I think that that particular

  • YouTube video illustrates perfectly

  • the differences between most men and women when they're buying

  • a greeting card like a Valentine's Day card or something like that.

  • so those describe consumer behavior

  • from the perspective of what they did before

  • and during product use.

  • let's look how marketers have changed tuna salad based

  • on the study consumer behavior.

  • let's look here at

  • starkist tuna and if will look

  • at the reasons people don't eat more tuna

  • on the go or to take it to lunch -- it deals a lot with

  • smell. and everything you have to take with you to use

  • tuna at work. sound to

  • to handle this problem for consumers

  • their package includes

  • ready-made tuna salad you don't even have to mix

  • the tuna with any mayonaise

  • and relish anymore. it's already made for you. there are six crackers,

  • a serving spoon to put the salad on the crackers,

  • a napkin, a mint afterwards so that you don't have bad breath.

  • I would challenge you to see what missing.

  • what still don't they understand about why more people don't

  • eat tuna for lunch? what happens after

  • they eat this tuna pack? did they have to dispose of the product?

  • and when they do dispose of the product,

  • is there a problems that's solved? do they put it in the trash can and

  • you still continue to get that tuna smell?

  • I would like to suggest that way a

  • better way to meet consumer need and better

  • understand consumer behavior would be to perhaps included a ziplock type

  • bag in that packet so that would be easy to

  • dispose of everything when you are done. so

  • how do people go about buying, using

  • and consuming products. what I'd like to introduce now

  • is the consumer decision-making process. and people who don't understand

  • marketing tend to focus on how can we get

  • people to buy. and while that's

  • a long-term goal for marketers, marketers realize that

  • individual consumers go through a process

  • where before they can buy

  • or purchase, they first have to recognize

  • they have a problem or need. We would

  • define that as the difference between what they

  • actually have and what they desire.

  • as so when a person has a difference between what they have

  • what they desire, they then recognized that they have a problem

  • or a need and will begin to search

  • for alternatives to help them solve that problem. so we define

  • problem recognition as the difference between

  • actual and desired. information searched then is when they would look to some

  • internal sources, basically what they might remember

  • about different ways to solve this problem or

  • different brands, but they also would look to

  • some external source like

  • personal sources -- being their friends, their family, their coworkers.

  • they might also look to public sources --

  • things that they see in news publications or consumer reports or on social media

  • by people who aren't necessarily their friends or family and are not

  • the marketer of the products or services.

  • and they also use many external source

  • that are developed by marketers -- advertisements, web page,

  • personal salespeople,

  • all external support sources. so i'd

  • like to ask you right now what

  • external source do you think people

  • trust the least? personal sources --

  • their friends and family? public sources --

  • things they might see in the media that not paid

  • advertising or promotion? or marketer sources --

  • information about a product from the marketer?

  • they probably trust marketers

  • sources least and personal sources

  • the most. that's why it's so important for marketers to have satisfied

  • customers

  • so that the word of mouth generated by personal sources is

  • more positive influence

  • on people. so again we're talking about when

  • consumers make a decision to buy the first thing they have to do

  • is recognize they have a need or problem.

  • they then use internal and external sources

  • to search for information. they then

  • begin to evaluate various alternatives.

  • and when they evaluate alternative one thing

  • they'll do in their mind or perhaps even on paper is

  • come up with some of the evaluative criteria

  • that they would use. keep in mind

  • these evaluative criteria may not all have

  • equal weight. for example perhaps the most important thing to someone choosing

  • a college

  • is price and class size.

  • to another person the most important criteria

  • might be majors offered and location.

  • regardless consumers have some sort of evaluative criteria that they

  • use when they are evaluating different

  • brands in their consideration set.

  • the consideration set would be the list

  • of acceptable brands that they would consider.

  • so if it's a very important purchase a consumer might actually

  • write down a pro and con list or a little chart.

  • but if it's not very important or purchase

  • or a purchase in which they have a high level of involvement,

  • they may simply do this in their head.

  • for example you can see how this consumer

  • thinks about brand A B and

  • C. and it might be in this case

  • because what is most important is price

  • and class size, they would choose brand

  • A. so this explains how consumers go about

  • evaluating alternatives.

  • so again, as we talk about the

  • consumer problem-solving process, we've talked about

  • problem recognition, information search

  • Evaluation of alternates and then

  • purchase. by the way not all

  • not all time when we go through this process

  • do we end up purchasing. it might be that we go through this process and say

  • what I have is adequate. I don't need to purchase a new car

  • or I don't need to go back to college.

  • but at some point, if they do decide to purchase,

  • they will select an outlet --

  • and a number of factors can have huge

  • impact here. for example type of financing,

  • delivery or just plain availability of the product

  • might make them to choose another alternative

  • than they had selected.

  • oftentimes after person purchases

  • they experience what is called post

  • purchased satisfaction or dis-satisfaction.

  • and if it's dis-satisfaction we call

  • that cognitive dissonance

  • or buyers remorse. when we say cognitive

  • it means thinking and when we say dissonance

  • in it means unbalanced. so if you have

  • unbalanced thinking about a purchase,

  • you question whether or not you made the right decision.

  • something I'd like to point out here is

  • that all of a marketers efforts are not necessarily directed

  • just at problem recognition, information search,

  • evaluation of alternative and purchase.

  • many times seeing an advertisement or promotion

  • about something that you recently purchased

  • helps you to eliminate cognitive dissonance

  • and in your mind solidify

  • that you didn't make a good purchase.

  • one thing I want emphasized is

  • you don't go through this process

  • with same level of intensity or concern

  • for all products you buy. in other words --

  • depending upon your level of involvement

  • with a particular product or product category --

  • you might go through this process very very quickly

  • and doing so you would use what's called

  • routine problem-solving behavior.

  • so typically when you want to buy a bottle of ketchup,

  • you don't spend much time going through this process.

  • and in fact you probably don't do any

  • post purchase evaluation

  • unless product doesn't perform

  • as expected. if this

  • product you're buying is very important to you

  • and you have a high-level involvement

  • here because it's very expensive or there's a lot of

  • risk involved or it's going to reflect

  • significantly on your personal image,

  • you might take a lot of time going through this process.

  • in this case you will be using what's called extended

  • problem solving. a girl buying her wedding

  • dress probably uses extended problem-solving.

  • very rarely would they buy the first one they tried on

  • even if they liked it best with out

  • first trying other alternatives.

  • and products that are purchased with some level of involvement

  • between these two levels

  • would use what is called

  • called limited problem solving. so you're going to buy a

  • blender for example or a new

  • outfit or something like that, you would probably use

  • limited problem solving. so I just wanted

  • to illustrate here for you the beginning of the the concept

  • consumer behavior and the consumer

  • buying decision process.

let's continue our discussion of market sensing,

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B1 中級

マーケットセンシング消費者行動の意思決定プロセス (Market Sensing: Consumer Behavior Decision Process)

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    羅紹桀 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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