字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Let's continue with the consumer behavior aspect of market sensing. Specifically in this lesson and we'll look at the influences on the purchase decision process. Last lesson, we talked about consumer decision-making process being problem recognition, information search, evaluation of altaernatives, purchase and post-purchase evaluation. you can find a nice summary these stages at this website. and also this website you can find a summary the influences we're going to be discussing. Wouldn't it be nice if put consumers alone room and watch them go through this process. Unfortunately for marketers consumers go through this process in a complex world with a variety of external influences. We can group those external influences as situational, psychological and sociocultural. take a look at these three categories at external influences on consumer decision-making one by one. First of all situational influences. What are the physical surroundings like that the consumer is in when they're purchasing a product or considering purchase? For example look at how mcdonald's has changed its physical surrounding from being a playground in primary colors to more cafe Starbucks competitors sort of product. Big change in the physical surroundings there. Some people will choose not to shop at Walmart simply because they do not like the physical surrounding there. Another major situational influence is social surrounding. What about the salespeople at a particular store? Have you ever shopped at a particular store because you liked salesperson there or did not shop at this store because you didn't like the people who were in that particular setting? Another situational influence is time. How much time a consumer has to go through researching that process and also what time day, week, or year it is. For example certain products sell very well in the second week of February because of Valentine's Day -- chocolate, lingerie, flowers, teddy bears -- all related to a situational influence. Another situational influence is the reason for purchase. are you buying for yourself? Are you buying for a gift? If it is a gift, your how important is the person you're buying for. Is their any risk involved in your purchase if you make a wrong purchase? Another situational influence the mode of the shopper. Some shoppers will buy more or less depending upon their mood and whether or not they like to shop. In addition to situational influences there are a number of psychological influences on consumers as they go through this buying process. First of all perception. perception is our process of selecting all the signals and information that are going on outside of us. We can't possibly interpret everything that's happening in our marketing environment so we select and then organizing that information we select and interpret that information. That process is the process of perception and we'll discuss that more. Another psychological influence is motives or motivation. What's the internal force that affects our behavior to listen to this particular lecture? My guess is it was an assignment or you didn't understand a particular topic or you're trying to prepare for a quiz or a test. I'm guessing most of you aren't listening to this particular lesson just because you wanted. There's probably some other driving force. Other psychological influences are learning, attitude, personality and self-concept and lifestyle. And look at the last four later. Let's first take at the first one -- perception. I mentioned earlier that we can't possibly perceive everything that's going on in our environment so we have a tendency to practice what's called selective perception. Since we can't see everything we see what we think is important or what currently supports our points of view. For example in this Fed Ex logo which I think you've seen many times, how many see an arrow regularly? Or do you never process that? are you saying what arrow? This arrow right here. my guess is now that the arrow's been pointed out to you,every time you will see the Fed Ex logo you are now notice it when previously you didn't. What about this image? What do you see? do you see a young man lady or an old woman? If you're seeing a young lady, this is her hair with her hat. Here's her eyes, her nose, her ear. On her chin on the right side her necklace and her fur. If you're seeing an older lady, this is her hair. This is her bonnet. This is her nose. what the other person's necklace is the older person's mouth. what was the other person's neckline is her chin. And again this is her fur. So it's interesting that sometimes we see what we want to see or hear what we want to hear. And so if you have a particular perception about a product or service -- even a marketer tells you otherwise -- you don't perceive it that way because we all tend to hear things that support our personal beliefs and perception. That's why we'll talk later about how we can go about changing people's attitudes and perception as marketers. So we practice selective perception because we can't possibly perceive everything that's going on in our environment because we tend to hear things that support our own beliefs and not hear or pay attention to things that don't support their views. this affects marketers when they're trying to convince you to buy their products and services. Let's talk next a little bit about motivation. there's a website for reference there. probably one of the most well recognized theories on motivation is based upon Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He said that people are motivated by different things at different times and so we can't motivate all people by the same technique. He says that the most basic level of need in physiological. note -- that's not psychological. at the beginning it's like physical -- physiological needs are our most basic needs. Needs for food, water, shelter, basic clothing. Once our physical have been met they no longer serve to motivate us and then move to a higher level of motivation and is for safety. Once we feel our physical needs met and we're safe, we will then reach out trying to connect with other people. You can understand most how someone who doesn't feel safe won't be reaching out to connect with other people. Next after we connect with other people our feeling about ourselves -- our self-esteem -- is our next and then at the very end -- self actualization -- being all we were created to be. if you think about college-- for example-- that's trying to market itself to a consumer or perhaps to you, they might tell you that the reason to attend their college is so that you can better provide for your physical needs. They might also say the reason to attend college is to provide job security or safety within your job. They might say the reason to attend college is to meet other people and connected with other people in your age. Another reason to attend college would be to feel good about yourself and her skills and abilities -- your own self-esteem. Another reason to attend college the highest level of need -- would be to be all that you can be. so the question is -- what motivates you to learn or attend college? What level of need is there? We discussed one product that might market itself at all different levels of needs. But we could also discuss products designed for each level. Obviously most basic foods are designed to meet physiological. While security systems, funeral planning, insurance is designed to meet safety needs. Events or places where you can meet other people are designed and marketed to meet social needs. Some again, motivation is a huge psychological influence on people as they go through the consumer decision-making process. Let's look at other psychological influences besides perception and motives. Let's think about learning. we learn through thinking or through behaviors. If we try a product several times and we like it we might become what is called brand loyal. So brand loyalty is a learned behavior. On flip side, we might try a product and not like it and and therefore we have learned that we do like that particular product. One of the biggest challenges marketers face is people attitudes toward brand or object -- their individual evaluation of a brand or object. And a lot of that is based on their perception. Some might say when you're talking to consumers perception is reality to them. In other words if they perceive your brand that way it is that way whether it is or not -- unless we can change their attitude or their perception. So let's look at some ways we can change people's attitudes. One-way would be to take a negative attribute and turn it into a positive one. Maybe a negative attribute might be that your local community college doesn't offer the ability to his participate on collegiate athletic teams. we could take that negative attribute and say that if you intend that local community college you'll be focused on learning activities that help you get a job/career and you won't have those distractions and you don't have to pay to support collegiate athletics when that's not really why you go to college. Another way to change attitude is to capitalize on a positive attribute. Perhaps your college has a positive attributes like small class sizes but maybe people don't realize how important that is. So what you could do would be to emphasize how importance it is to learn in environment where your professors know your name and and communicating and care about you. And all of a sudden people realize the importance of that particular attribute. You might also add a new attribute. Maybe there's a new major or program you hadn't previously offered that people are very interesting in. You might add that attribute. you might also change their belief about an existing attribute -- similar to what we talked about before -- turning a negative attribute into a positive one. but it doesn't even have to be negative. It might be an attribute they just don't realize how important that attribute is. So what we discussed here in the importance of consumers attitudes on going through that consumer decision-making process of problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post-purchase evaluation and how we can affect their attitudes. Additionally a person's personality -- their consistent response to a situation -- some people might respond to a situation one-way and other another, another way. People buy products that support their personality.Tthey wouldn't be caught wearing particular type of clothing or using a particular brand or drinking particular beverage because it doesn't match their personality. Occasionally people buy a product or service to support an area of their personality that they think is weak. Even though it may appear they very logically go through that purchase decision making process sometimes personality decisions have a huge influence on what they ultimately decide to buy -- even if the evaluative criteria for their consideration set doesn't necessarily point to that particular product or service.