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  • Let's continue with the consumer behavior

  • aspect of market sensing. Specifically

  • in this lesson and we'll look at the influences on the purchase decision process.

  • Last lesson, we talked about consumer decision-making process

  • being problem recognition, information search,

  • evaluation of altaernatives, purchase

  • and post-purchase evaluation. you can find a nice

  • summary these stages at this website. and also

  • this website you can find a summary the influences

  • we're going to be discussing. Wouldn't it be nice if

  • put consumers alone room and watch them

  • go through this process. Unfortunately

  • for marketers consumers go through this process

  • in a complex world with a variety of external influences.

  • We can group those external influences

  • as situational, psychological

  • and sociocultural. take a look at these three categories

  • at external influences on consumer decision-making

  • one by one. First of all

  • situational influences. What are the physical surroundings

  • like that the consumer is in when they're purchasing a product

  • or considering purchase? For example look at

  • how mcdonald's has changed its physical surrounding

  • from being a playground in primary colors

  • to more cafe Starbucks competitors sort

  • of product. Big change in the physical surroundings

  • there. Some people will choose

  • not to shop at Walmart simply because they do not like the physical surrounding

  • there. Another major situational influence

  • is social surrounding. What about the

  • salespeople at a particular store? Have you ever shopped at a particular store

  • because you liked

  • salesperson there or did not shop at this store

  • because you didn't like the people who were in that particular setting?

  • Another situational

  • influence is time. How much time a consumer has to go through

  • researching that process and also

  • what time day, week, or year it is.

  • For example certain products sell very well

  • in the second week of February because of

  • Valentine's Day -- chocolate, lingerie,

  • flowers, teddy bears -- all

  • related to a situational influence.

  • Another situational influence is the reason for purchase.

  • are you buying for yourself? Are you buying for a gift?

  • If it is a gift, your how important is the person you're buying

  • for. Is their any risk involved in your purchase if you

  • make a wrong purchase? Another situational

  • influence the mode of the shopper. Some shoppers will buy more

  • or less depending upon their mood and whether or not they like to shop.

  • In addition to situational influences

  • there are a number of psychological influences

  • on consumers as they go through this buying process. First of all

  • perception. perception

  • is our process of selecting all the

  • signals and information that are going on outside of us.

  • We can't possibly

  • interpret everything that's happening in our marketing environment

  • so we select and then

  • organizing that information we select and

  • interpret that information. That process is the

  • process of perception and we'll discuss that

  • more. Another psychological influence

  • is motives or motivation. What's the internal

  • force that affects our behavior

  • to listen to this particular lecture? My guess is

  • it was an assignment or you didn't understand a

  • particular topic or you're trying to prepare for a quiz or a test.

  • I'm guessing most of you aren't listening to this particular

  • lesson just because you wanted. There's probably

  • some other driving force. Other psychological influences

  • are learning, attitude, personality and

  • self-concept and lifestyle. And look at the last four

  • later. Let's first take

  • at the first one -- perception.

  • I mentioned earlier that we can't

  • possibly perceive everything that's going on

  • in our environment so we have a tendency to practice

  • what's called selective perception.

  • Since we can't see everything we see what we think is important

  • or what currently supports our points of view.

  • For example in this Fed Ex logo which I think you've seen

  • many times, how many see an arrow

  • regularly? Or do you never process that?

  • are you saying what arrow? This arrow right here.

  • my guess is now that the arrow's been pointed

  • out to you,every time you will see the Fed Ex logo

  • you are now notice it when previously you didn't.

  • What about this image? What do you see?

  • do you see a young man lady

  • or an old woman?

  • If you're seeing a young lady, this is her hair

  • with her hat.

  • Here's her eyes, her nose, her ear.

  • On her chin on the right side

  • her necklace and her

  • fur. If you're seeing an older lady,

  • this is her hair. This is her

  • bonnet.

  • This is her nose.

  • what the other person's necklace is the older person's mouth.

  • what was the other person's

  • neckline is her chin.

  • And again this is her fur. So it's

  • interesting that sometimes we

  • see what we want to see or hear what we want to hear.

  • And so if you have a particular perception

  • about a product or service -- even

  • a marketer tells you otherwise --

  • you don't perceive it that way because we all tend to hear

  • things that support our personal

  • beliefs and perception. That's why

  • we'll talk later about how we can go about changing

  • people's attitudes and perception

  • as marketers. So we practice

  • selective perception because we can't possibly

  • perceive everything that's going on in our environment

  • because we tend to hear things that support our own beliefs

  • and not hear or pay attention to

  • things that don't support their views.

  • this affects marketers when they're trying to convince you

  • to buy their products and services.

  • Let's talk next a little bit about motivation.

  • there's a website for reference there. probably one of the most

  • well recognized theories on

  • motivation is based upon Abraham

  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

  • He said that people are motivated by

  • different things at different times and so we can't motivate

  • all people by the same technique.

  • He says that the most basic level of need

  • in physiological. note -- that's not

  • psychological. at the beginning it's like physical --

  • physiological needs are our most basic needs.

  • Needs for food,

  • water, shelter,

  • basic clothing. Once our physical

  • have been met they no longer

  • serve to motivate us and then

  • move to a higher level of motivation

  • and is for safety. Once we feel

  • our physical needs met and we're safe,

  • we will then reach out trying to connect with other people.

  • You can understand most how someone who doesn't

  • feel safe won't be reaching out to connect with other people.

  • Next after we connect with other people

  • our feeling about ourselves --

  • our self-esteem -- is our next

  • and then at the very end -- self

  • actualization -- being all we were created to be. if

  • you think about college-- for example--

  • that's trying to market itself to a consumer

  • or perhaps to you, they might tell you that the reason to attend their

  • college is so that you can better provide

  • for your physical needs. They might also say

  • the reason to attend college is to provide

  • job security or safety within your job.

  • They might say the reason to attend

  • college is to meet other people

  • and connected with other people in your age.

  • Another reason to attend college would be to

  • feel good about yourself and her skills and

  • abilities -- your own self-esteem. Another reason to attend college

  • the highest level of need -- would be to be all that you can be.

  • so the question is -- what motivates you to learn

  • or attend college? What level of need

  • is there? We discussed one product

  • that might market itself at all different levels

  • of needs. But we could also discuss

  • products designed for each level.

  • Obviously most basic foods are designed to meet

  • physiological. While security systems,

  • funeral planning, insurance is designed to meet

  • safety needs. Events

  • or places where you can meet other people

  • are designed and marketed to meet social needs.

  • Some again, motivation is a huge

  • psychological influence on people as they go through the consumer decision-making

  • process. Let's look at other psychological

  • influences besides perception and motives.

  • Let's think about learning. we learn

  • through thinking or through behaviors.

  • If we try a product several times and we

  • like it we might become what is called

  • brand loyal. So brand loyalty

  • is a learned behavior. On flip side,

  • we might try a product and not like it and

  • and therefore we have learned that we do

  • like that particular

  • product. One of the biggest challenges marketers face

  • is people attitudes toward brand

  • or object -- their individual evaluation

  • of a brand or object. And a lot of that is based

  • on their perception. Some might say

  • when you're talking to consumers perception

  • is reality to them. In other words

  • if they perceive your brand that way it is

  • that way whether it is or not --

  • unless we can change their attitude

  • or their perception. So let's look at some ways

  • we can change people's attitudes.

  • One-way would be to take a negative attribute

  • and turn it into a positive one.

  • Maybe a negative attribute might be

  • that your local community college

  • doesn't offer the ability to his participate

  • on collegiate athletic teams.

  • we could take that negative attribute and

  • say that if you intend that local community college

  • you'll be focused on learning activities

  • that help you get a job/career and

  • you won't have those distractions and you don't have to pay

  • to support collegiate athletics when that's not really

  • why you go to college. Another way

  • to change attitude is to capitalize

  • on a positive attribute. Perhaps

  • your college has a positive

  • attributes like small class

  • sizes but maybe people don't realize how important that is.

  • So what you could do would be to emphasize how importance it is to

  • learn in environment where your professors know your name and

  • and communicating and care about you. And all of a sudden

  • people realize the importance of

  • that particular attribute.

  • You might also add a new attribute. Maybe there's a new major

  • or program you hadn't previously offered that

  • people are very interesting in. You might add that attribute.

  • you might also change their belief

  • about an existing attribute -- similar to what we talked about

  • before -- turning a negative attribute into a positive one. but it

  • doesn't even have to be negative.

  • It might be an attribute they just don't realize how

  • important that attribute is. So

  • what we discussed here in the importance of

  • consumers attitudes on going through that consumer decision-making process

  • of problem recognition, information search,

  • evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post-purchase evaluation

  • and how we can affect

  • their attitudes. Additionally

  • a person's personality -- their consistent response to a situation --

  • some people might respond to a situation one-way

  • and other another, another way.

  • People buy products that support

  • their personality.Tthey wouldn't be caught wearing

  • particular type of clothing or using a

  • particular brand or drinking particular beverage

  • because it doesn't match their personality.

  • Occasionally people buy a product or service

  • to support an area of their personality that they think

  • is weak. Even though it may appear they very logically go through that purchase

  • decision making process

  • sometimes personality

  • decisions have a huge influence

  • on what they ultimately decide to buy --

  • even if the evaluative criteria for their consideration set

  • doesn't necessarily point to that particular product or service.