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  • Barry Olsen: We are professors of translation and interpretation.

  • Laura Burian: We're also practicing professional translators and interpreters,

  • as you can see.

  • BO: We're here today to tell you

  • that it takes more than words to interpret from one language to another.

  • In fact, there's a misconception out there about translation and interpretation.

  • Many people just call both of them, erroneously, translation.

  • Well, translation is written,

  • and interpretation is spoken.

  • So now you know the difference.

  • Please spread the word.

  • LB: Here at TEDxMonterey, we have a pretty special situation

  • in that our students of conference interpretation

  • are in booths in the back of the auditorium

  • providing simultaneous interpretation of everything being said on stage

  • and this is going into Chinese, French,

  • German, Japanese, Korean, Russian, and Spanish,

  • out onto the web being live streamed.

  • BO: Interpreters work in two different modes:

  • consecutive

  • and simultaneous,

  • and we're going to have you watch our interpreter, Mr. Miguel Garcia,

  • as he interprets what I say in Spanish into English,

  • but he'll do it consecutively.

  • Simultaneous interpretation will pause for this demonstration.

  • So... (Spanish) En la consecutiva,

  • el intérprete escucha al orador y luego toma notas.

  • El orador termina y luego el intérprete dice en el otro idioma

  • lo que ha dicho el orador principal.

  • Pero, fíjense en las notas que él está tomando.

  • No son como las notas que nosotros usamos para la memoria a largo plazo.

  • Tampoco son como la taquigrafía

  • que solo sirve para anotar palabras especificas.

  • Él usa estas notas

  • para concentrarse en el flujo de las ideas del orador.

  • Y luego, él usa su memoria a corto plazo junto con sus notas

  • para poder interpretar al otro idioma lo que ha dicho el orador.

  • Ésto es de muy baja tecnología,

  • pero uno necesita tener

  • cientos de horas de formación y de practica para hacerlo bien.

  • Miguel Garcia: Can you hear me? Great.

  • So, in consecutive interpretation,

  • the interpreter first listens to the speaker as he delivers his speech

  • and uses notes for an aid.

  • After the speaker is done speaking,

  • then the interpreter uses these notes and what he heard

  • to interpret into the other language.

  • However, if you look at the notes that are here on the board,

  • you see that these notes are different from

  • the notes that one would take, for example, for long-term memory,

  • or the kinds of notes that we take for stenography for example,

  • when we need to remember specific words.

  • He then uses these notes

  • to concentrate on the flow of ideas that he is hearing,

  • and then he uses his short-term memory with the notes

  • as an aid to interpret into the other language.

  • Now, this is very low-tech,

  • but the interpreters need hundreds of hours of training and practice

  • in order to be able to do a good job.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

  • (Voiceover interpreting Chinese into English)

  • Thank you Miguel.

  • Thank you for demonstrating what consecutive interpretation is.

  • Now I would like to talk about simultaneous interpretation

  • which is very important to many international organizations

  • because in international organizations

  • many speeches need to be interpreted into in multiple languages.

  • You may have noticed

  • now I'm speaking in Chinese instead of English,

  • but in your headsets I'm a guy.

  • (Laughter)

  • There you go.

  • Of course, I am not a man, my interpreter is a guy.

  • He is interpreting my Chinese speech into English,

  • and the other interpreters

  • are interpreting from his English into French and Korean.

  • So, simultaneous interpreting

  • can provide us with convenience.

  • Sometimes people think that being bilingual is enough,

  • but it is not enough.

  • First of all, you must have a lot of background knowledge

  • and second, you must be a good multitasker.

  • Why?

  • Because interpreters are continuously listening

  • to what the speaker is saying,

  • understanding the speaker's intended meaning

  • and then redelivering the message into their targeted languages.

  • At the same time,

  • the interpreter is constantly listening

  • to the other information

  • and checking to be sure that the interpretation is correct.

  • Many people believe they are good multitaskers,

  • especially young people,

  • but think of how many multitaskers have caused car accidents.

  • (Laughter)

  • It is impossible for them to send short text messages while driving.

  • But don't worry.

  • Fortunately, our interpretation booths don't have wheels,

  • so you don't have to worry.

  • (Voiceover interpreting Spanish into English)

  • Well, I would like to share something else with you

  • about simultaneous interpretation, a little bit of history.

  • Simultaneous interpretation has only been around

  • as a profession, as a professional activity,

  • for about 60 years,

  • after its great debut at the Nuremberg War Crime Tribunals

  • after the Second World War.

  • And it was interesting to see that in these trials,

  • participants were able to speak and listen in English,

  • German, French, and Russian at the same time.

  • Now, we have heard, and very acceptably so,

  • that without simultaneous interpretation

  • these trials could have never come about.

  • So we can see the importance of simultaneous interpretation.

  • Now, I would like to ask you

  • is this kind of interpretation

  • really simultaneous?

  • I wouldn't say so,

  • because if this was simultaneous,

  • we would have to be psychic in order to guess the future.

  • So I will show you an example.

  • If you can understand me please raise your hand right now.

  • It was like a wave in this room

  • as you could see,

  • because those of you who understand Spanish

  • immediately raised your hand,

  • but as Laura explained,

  • those of you who are listening to the English interpretation

  • were listening to the interpreter,

  • and they told me

  • I have a more feminine voice when being interpreted.

  • (Laughter)

  • So, as you listened you laughed,

  • but you had to wait for a while.

  • What I'm saying is that my interpreter has to listen to the message,

  • process the ideas,

  • and then reformulate these ideas

  • into the other language.

  • (Voiceover interpreting Chinese into English)

  • I know many of you are thinking

  • there are so many good tools today such as Google Translate.

  • Is it good enough to take care of our translation needs?

  • You don't have to wait for Google Translate to deliver.

  • Well, in some circumstances,

  • these tools can help us,

  • but they have their own problems.

  • They only process words, not ideas.

  • They cannot think or predict.

  • They have no cultural sensitivity or emotional intelligence.

  • So we cannot depend on them.

  • We need to hire humans to help us translate and interpret.

  • (Voiceover interpreting Spanish into English)

  • Now this takes me to the next question.

  • Why doesn't everybody just speak English?

  • This is a question that everybody has posed

  • in the English-speaking world.

  • But I would answer by saying,

  • why don't we all speak Chinese like Laura?

  • Or Russian? Or Spanish?

  • Well, I think the best answer to this question

  • comes from the words of Nelson Mandela

  • who said:

  • "If you talk to a man in a language he understands,

  • that goes to his head.

  • But if you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart."

  • So, that is why we need translators and interpreters,

  • and we also know that words matter,

  • and that true communication is much more than words.

  • That's where translators and interpreters bridge the gap

  • between cultures and languages.

  • And we are happy to have our interpreters here at TEDxMonterey.

  • LB: (Spanish) Thank you. BO: (Chinese) Thank you.

  • (Applause)

  • A big round of applause for Miguel Garcia, please!

  • (Applause)

  • LB: Thank you.

Barry Olsen: We are professors of translation and interpretation.

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TEDx】More than words|Laura Burian, Miguel Garcia & Barry Olsen|TEDxMonterey (【TEDx】More than words | Laura Burian, Miguel Garcia & Barry Olsen | TEDxMonterey)

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    Angel Wings に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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