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  • During the sixties critics stood up, they objected against this linear effect-oriented approach

  • They argued that many people give a different meaning to a message than was intended,

  • but why should that be wrong?

  • Instead, they focused on the recipients of communication

  • and how they give meaning to a message, using their own unqiue toolkit

  • with their own backgrounds and experiences, knowledge, emotions, et cetera.

  • So in this model, this non-linear model, there is no wrong outcome,

  • there is no wrong communication

  • Everyone gives meaning to a message in there own unique way

  • This idea was hardly new.

  • Scientists had studied the phenomenon of polysemic messages for a long time.

  • Polysemic meaning exactly that, different people interpreting a message in a different way.

  • According to these scientists each act of communication relies

  • on a communication system, without which we wouldn't understand each other.

  • The study of these systems is called semiotics or semiology,

  • the so called study ofsignsandsignification’.

  • A sign is basically everything that communicates something.

  • A spoken word, a gesture, a glance, a photo, a cartoon,

  • a written sentence, a hieroglyph, they are all signs.

  • The process of giving meaning to these signs is called signification.

  • Without going to deep into this fascinating topic, it’s important to briefly discuss

  • the influence of semiotic theories on mass communication theory.

  • This approach views communication not as a linear process but as an exchange of meaning.

  • The sender puts meaning in a message and the receiver takes meaning from a message.

  • Under influence of semiotic theories,

  • communication scientists became more interested in the reception of a message

  • and acknowledged that communication can indeed have multiple valid outcomes.

  • Let’s look at this classic model for example,

  • proposed by linguist Roman Jacobson in 1960.

  • He starts with familiar elements from Shannon and Weavers transmission model:

  • An addresser sends a message to an addressee using a channel.

  • He added to the model elements from semiotics

  • Like the idea that every message refers to something outside of the message,

  • which he called context.

  • Also, the specific form that our communication takes, for instance a written word,

  • made up of letters, is called a code.

  • Successful communication, according to Jacobson,

  • can only exist when all of these elements are in place.

  • Also, each act of communication has one dominant function

  • that relates to one of these elements in this model.

  • Let's review these functions that Jacobson identified.

  • When the primary purpose of a message is to communicate

  • the emotions and attitudes of a sender, this is called the emotive function.

  • For instance when I write a love letter to my girlfriend.

  • The second function is conative.

  • If a receiver is directly addressed to do something specific.

  • An example is a commercial that tells us tobuy this flavour of ice cream!”.

  • The referential or descriptive function corresponds with the context

  • and happens when a message primarily describes a situation.

  • Perhaps a news report is a good example for this.

  • Sometimes the main purpose of communicating is to keep the lines open,

  • when we have coffee each week with a friend for instance.

  • This is called a phatic function and relates to the channel.

  • A poetic function means that the message is an end in itself,

  • a painting for example that aims at being a beautiful and aesthetically pleasing piece of art.

  • And finally there is the metalingual function,

  • when we use communication to explain the codes that we use.

  • For instance a dictionary.

  • Another example is the explanation I’m giving right now,

  • in which we are discussing concepts from the field of semiotics.

  • By focusing on the meaning of a message,

  • signs, signification and the main function of a message,

  • Jacobson has given us a model that is very different from the transmission model.

  • It’s also a good starting point to discuss a third perspective

  • that offers again a new angle with which to view our field.

During the sixties critics stood up, they objected against this linear effect-oriented approach


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B1 中級

1.6 レセプション、サイン、シグニフィケーション (1.6 Reception, Signs, Signification)

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    羅紹桀 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日