字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder or ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among children and teenagers. But what’s going on inside the brain and body of these individuals and could it actually be an advantage? While some environmental factors such as maternal drinking and smoking during pregnancy may play a role in brain development, ADHD is highly linked to your genetics. And most of these genes are directly associated to the brain’s reward pathways. It turns out that those with ADHD have lower levels of dopamine receptors - dopamine being the ‘feel good’ hormone. This means they are less sensitive to rewards, ultimately making them feel bored or unstimulated by what may keep another individual entertained. We also see a major difference when we look at fMRI scans. Normally, a brain at rest shows activity in the default mode network, and quickly switches over to the task-positive network when your focus is required. But for ADHD brains, the default mode network fails to automatically shut down, meaning both networks stay active, resulting in a decreased ability to concentrate. Scientists have also observed a thinner prefrontal cortex in ADHD patients, which is responsible for attention control, emotional regulation, and response inhibition. As a result of these difference, Ritalin is often prescribed for ADHD; it helps to increase dopamine concentration in the synapse, increasing the likelihood of it binding to the fewer receptors. However, there is conflicting research on its overall efficacy and concern over unknown long term side effects. Of course, many non-ADHD individuals have also been known to abuse ritalin as a method to increase concentration during work or school to study more effectively. Perhaps more controversial is the dramatic increase in diagnosis of ADHD over the years. Whether warranted or not, a 5% increase was documented each year from 2003-2011 in the U.S. Medication prescriptions have also followed a similar pattern, with some reports indicating a 35% increase in dispensed prescriptions from 2008-2012. But it turns out that there may be an evolutionary advantage to having classic ADHD symptoms. For hunter-gatherers and nomadic cultures, being restless and hyperactive translates directly into higher chances of successfully bringing home food and increased vigilance for protecting offspring. This means a greater chance of survival and passing on your genes. Even in a current study of settled vs. nomadic members of the Ariaal tribe in Kenya, nomads that had a higher frequency of genes linked to ADHD were better at getting food. On top of this, studies have routinely shown that those with ADHD tend to be more creative in both controlled tests and in real life, as they often think randomly and outside the box. Finally, while structured and orderly school environments may not be conducive to ADHD children, many adults thrive in the right work environment. Studies show that if their high energy is channeled into the right careers, especially those that demand great resourcefulness and adaptability, this once viewed handicap can become a strong asset. Special thanks to audible for supporting this episode to give you a free 30 day trial at audible.com/asap. This week we wanted to recommend the book ‘The ADHD Advantage’ by Dale Archer, which highlights how some of the most successful entrepreneurs, leaders and entertainers were strengthened by their ADHD. You can get a free 30 day trial at audible.com/asap and choose from a massive selection! We love them as they are great when you’re on the go. And subscribe for more weekly science videos!