字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Hi, my name is Giuliete Aymard and this is a new episode of our Cambridge Institute Channel. Today we're going to talk about Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving is one of the most important celebrations in the United States, and it officially marks the beginning of the great holiday season. Okay, you might say, but how did it all begin? Well, it is a little bit complex, but in a nutshell, the story is this: Among the many groups of colonists who went to America, there was a group of people now known as Pilgrims. The Pilgrims went to America on a ship called the Mayflower in 1620. They were escaping religious persecution in Europe because they wanted a complete separation from the Church of England. After the 65-day trip, the 102 passengers finally arrived to Plymouth. they were sick, tired and did not have enough supplies to successfully settle in the new land. Needless to say that after the first winter, half of them had died, and things looked pretty bleak to the ones who had survived. Their luck in the new world finally changed when they met Squanto, a member of the Patuxet tribe. Squanto had been captured years before to serve as a slave in Europe. He spent over a decade in Europe, and finally managed to get back to his homeland. So he spoke English and became friends with the Pilgrims. He decided to teach them how to fish and how to plant in the new land. Thanks to Squanto's help, they were able to have a bountiful harvest in 1621. They were extremely happy with this great occasion, and great occasions call for great celebrations. The Wampanoag tribe joined Squanto and the pilgrims in this harvest celebration that lasted for three days. Basically, this first Thanksgiving marks 3 accomplishments: The pilgrims that had survived for one year in the new land, the bountiful harvest that was a promise they would be able to survive for yet another year, and their friendship with Native Americans. After this first event Thanksgiving was celebrated sporadically, by some colonists in New England, but as local events that took place in different dates. It took over 200 years for Thanksgiving to be established as a national holiday, and it was all because of a woman: Sarah Josepha Hale, an editor from Boston, believed that Thanksgiving was an important celebration that could help unite Americans, promote patriotism and establish an all American holiday. She spent over 17 years campaigning for Thanksgiving, until finally, in 1863, in the middle of the American Civil War, she was finally able to convince president Lincoln to establish Thanksgiving on the last Thursday of November. This date was later changed by Franklin Roosevelt to the 4th Thursday of November. In the beginning of the 20th century 2 new traditions were introduced: Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade and Thanksgiving football games. Macy's, a famous New York Department Store has been organizing a parade in the streets of Manhattan since 1924, with giant helium balloons, celebrities, and marching bands. If you prefer watching football, you can choose one from the hundreds of games being played, from university teams to the NFL. What about dinner? You may ask. Well, a typical Thanksgiving dinner will include roast turkey, gravy and stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Some families also serve yams, corn, peas, cornbread, pumpkin bread and apple pie. As it is a lot of food, the meal is usually served by midday or early afternoon, so there is enough time to eat and still spend a nice time with loved ones. So, Thanksgiving is a day to be thankful for our health, our family, our community and all the achievements of year hard work. It's a day for us to stop, look back, and be happy about our journey, with all its joys and hardships. Take a look at your life and your year. What are you thankful for?