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  • 10 Ways Science Could Extend Your Lifespan

  • 10. Elysium Health’s Basis Pill

  • Leonard Guarente, a leading MIT biologist, with the backing of five Nobel Laureates,

  • launched the start-up company Elysium Health in 2015. Their first pill, Basis, works at

  • a cellular level and it enables the body to produce a natural compound called nicotinamide

  • adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which is an important compound that supports a healthy metabolism.

  • The active ingredient in the blue pill is nicotinamide riboside, which is a substance

  • that helps make NAD in the body.

  • The tests have shown better health in older mice, but the problem with Basis is that there

  • is no proof that it works in humans. Testing something like longevity in humans could take

  • decades. So with that being said, Basis is available for sale through their website.

  • If you take two gel caps a day, it will cost you $60 a month with a $50 membership.

  • 9. Sirtuin

  • Humans, like other mammals, have seven types of proteins in their bodies called sirtuins,

  • or sir2, and they are labeled SIRT1 to SIRT7. Researchers aren’t exactly sure what they

  • do, but there is some evidence that they may have a role in preventing chronic diseases

  • like heart disease and cancer. An example of how sirtuins works is Resveratrol, which

  • is the nutrient that is found in grape skins and red wine, and it has been known to help

  • with heart health. It is believed to be beneficial because it may activate the SIRT1 gene, which

  • makes more SIRT1 protein, and that protein helps the heart.

  • In 2012, Scientists at Bar-Ilan University in Israel published a study about the use

  • of SIRT6 on mice. Their study found that the males lived 16 percent longer than untreated

  • mice. The females didn’t show the same results, and the researchers are unsure why exactly,

  • but one possible reason that they speculated is that male mice have a higher rate of cancer,

  • so the SIRT6 could work as a tumor suppressor, which would have a greater effect on the male

  • population. While a lot of research still needs to be done, researchers are hopeful

  • that SIRT6 or one of the other sirtuins may unlock the key to longevity. Until then, you

  • may just have to drink red wine to activate SIRT1 so you can have a healthier heart.

  • 8. Young Blood

  • In the 1950s, Clive McCay of Cornell University did an experiment where he stitched together

  • the circulatory system of two mice; an old one and a young one. To his surprise, he found

  • that the cartilage in the older mice appeared to be younger than expected. Then in 2005,

  • a team at Stanford University found that the young blood also helped repair the mice’s

  • livers, skeletal systems, and they could repair muscle faster. What’s interesting is that

  • when older blood was entered into younger mice, it looked like they were aging prematurely.

  • Then in 2012, researchers at Harvard discovered that young blood in old mice meant less of

  • a decline in the condition of their hearts. The conclusion that eventually grew out of

  • this is that young blood has a rejuvenating effect on older mice, and that at least some

  • mammals have some vampiric qualities.

  • At first, researchers believed that young blood rejuvenated the body because of a protein

  • in the plasma called growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), which decreases with age.

  • Researchers believed blood transfusions with high levels of GDF11 may help slow the aging

  • process, and in October of 2014, that theory was put to the test on Alzheimer’s patients

  • and the results showed that GDF11 may not be responsible. While GDF11 hasn’t been

  • eliminated, researchers are still looking into why young blood can affect the bodies

  • of older people.

  • 7. Cellular Compound

  • Researchers have known for decades that some animals live longer and delay, or completely

  • avoid, age related diseases like diabetes or cardiovascular disease if they eat less

  • because of calorie and/or dietary restrictions. So you may be thinking you can just diet your

  • way into a healthy, long life. The problem is that it has never really been proved that

  • calorie restrictions help primates increase their life span. But researchers at the University

  • of California believe that longevity from calorie restrictions may be a clue to slowing

  • down the aging process. They believe that aging depends on compounds that are produced

  • in cells by metabolic reactions known as metabolites and the molecules may be used to boost lifespan.

  • To test their theory the researchers used nematode, which are millimeter-long worms

  • that are often used in longevity tests. The first molecule they tried was called alpha-ketoglutarate

  • (alpha-KG). The molecule helps in the metabolic cycle that extracts energy from food. When

  • they added the alpha-KG to the culture dish that housed the worms, the worms lived 70%

  • longer than the control worms and the wormsdeterioration was postponed, just like animals

  • with like calorie restriction.

  • The researchers point out that just because it worked in worms, it does not mean that

  • it will work in humans, but the results are promising.

  • 6. Telomerase

  • As we age, the cells in our bodies start to show wear and tear, which can lead to cancer.

  • So the body essentially turns off the old cells to avoid damage. Once they are turned

  • off, one of two things happens: they die off and leave the body through waste, or they

  • stay in the body in a senescent state. The problem is that the senescent cells pump out

  • an odd protein that has a weird effect on surrounding cells and researchers think it

  • is possible that these chemicals can lead to diseases that are age-related.

  • What may help is gene therapy on the mechanisms that cause cells to go senescent. One of those

  • the central mechanisms is the shortening of telomeres. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences

  • that are found on the ends of chromosomes and they act as protective caps. They are

  • compared to caps at the end of shoelaces; it keeps the ends from fraying and sticking

  • together.

  • When a cell divides, the chromosomes double so that the daughter cells receive equal amounts

  • of DNA. The telomere acts like a protective cap during the replication process, but they

  • are shortened each time the chromosome duplicates. Eventually when there is not enough telomere

  • left, the cell dies or becomes senescent. Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer

  • Research Centre have found a way to induce cells to express more telomerase. In their

  • tests, they found that mice that were treated at the age of one lived longer by 24 percent

  • on average, and the mice that were treated at the age of two had their lives extended

  • by 13 percent.

  • 5. AMPK

  • As we talked about in the last entry, one way we can combat aging is to address cellular

  • debris, which can lead to age-related diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and

  • other neurodegenerative disorders. One solution is simply to clear out the waste and this

  • is exactly what researchers at UCLA are trying to accomplish. They have done tests on fruit

  • flies where they activated a gene called AMPK.

  • AMPK has a role in boosting autophagy, which is a physiological process that cleans the

  • body of waste products. This led to less disease and extended the lives of the fruit flies

  • by 30 percent. If a 75-year-old human were to get a 30 percent extension on life, they

  • would live until the age of 97. That is over 22 additional healthy years of living.

  • 4. Calico LLC

  • In 2010, the UT Southwestern Medical Center identified the compound aminopropyl carbazole

  • P7C3. The compound is a neuroprotective agent that improved brain functionality in rats

  • and increased the survival of neurons in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease and ALS. Calico

  • LLC, which was founded by Google in 2013 and is dedicated to longevity research, licensed

  • the technology from Southwestern.

  • They are developing a drug that is

  • a Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) enhancer. NAMPT plays a major role in metabolism,

  • mitochondrial integrity and cell survival. If they are successful, their drug could help

  • people not only live longer, but live healthier lives as well.

  • 3. Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence Research Foundation

  • The Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) Research Foundation’s goal is that

  • they want to rid the world of age-related disease. The Foundation, which is led by biomedical

  • gerontologist Aubrey de Grey, is trying to develop a series of techniques that would

  • not only stop the aging process, but it would also rejuvenate bodies as well. De Grey has

  • identified seven types of molecular and cellular damage caused by essential metabolic processes

  • that happen in the body. His techniques involve a panel of treatments and a lot of them are

  • actually technologies we have talked about in prior entries. The therapies treat many

  • different areas associated with aging and they will also repair any damage that has

  • been done. The seven steps are:

  • RepleniSENS: Replacing lost cells OncoSENS: Making cancerous mutations harmless

  • MitoSENS: Preventing damage from mitochondrial mutations

  • ApoptoSENS: Removing dysfunctional cells GlycoSENS: Breaking extracellular crosslinks

  • AmyloSENS: Removing junk from between cells LysoSENS: Clearing waste accumulations out

  • of cells Obviously, this process is complicated and

  • there is still a lot of work to be done, but De Grey believes that the first person who

  • will reach the age of 1,000 is already alive today.

  • 2. Bioprinting

  • One of the faultiest parts of the human body is our organs. If one of them dies, or something

  • goes wrong, it can kill the whole body. A solution to this problem is bioprinting, which

  • is a technology that uses 3D printers to print new organs, tissue, and bones. Researchers

  • at Carnegie Mellon University developed a bioprinting process called Freeform Reversible

  • Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH) that will hopefully make this sci-fi technology

  • a reality. Through their process, they are able to print soft material inside a bath

  • of supportive fluid that contains regular everyday gelatin powder. Then layer by layer,

  • they print one gel inside another and these models would be used asscaffolding

  • that will allow real tissue and organs to grow between the scaffolding.

  • Eventually, once we can print organs, tissue, and bone, it would just be a matter of upgrading

  • our bodies on a part by part basis or transferring our consciousness to a better, faster, stronger,

  • and younger body.

  • 1. The 2045 Initiative

  • Famed futurist Ray Kurzweil believes that by the year 2045, humans and computers will

  • reach singularity, meaning that computers will become more advanced than humankind and

  • we will be able to upload our mind to a computer. It is believed that once we can upload our

  • minds, then we will become immortal. Someone who has taken this idea and wants to bring

  • it to fruition is Russian billionaire media mogul Dmitry Itskov. The main goal of his

  • 2045 Initiative is to build advanced non-biological carriers (androids) that we will be able upload

  • our consciousness to, similar to the movie Avatar. While this sounds like complete science-fiction,

  • Itskov actually has a number of experts on board and even has the blessing of the Dalai

  • Lama.

  • There are four major milestones that the project is trying to hit. By 2020, they want to have

  • the avatar technology available and in mainstream use. By 2025, they hope to be able to implant

  • a human brain into the avatar. By 2035, they hope to be able to upload a brain into a robot,

  • and Itskov believes that by 2045 we will be a new species because our bodies will be holograms.

  • Before you get too excited about living forever as an avatar, we should point out that they

  • do not have a working prototype for the avatar that is supposed to become mainstream by 2020,

  • so it may be a while before we evolve to our next life form.

10 Ways Science Could Extend Your Lifespan

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科学が寿命を延ばす10の方法 - TopTenzNet (Top 10 Ways Science Could Extend Your Lifespan — TopTenzNet)

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    richardwang に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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