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  • I love a challenge, and saving the Earth is probably a good one.

    挑戦好きな私には 地球を救うのがうってつけです

  • We all know the Earth is in trouble.

    今 地球は危機に瀕しています

  • We have now entered in the 6X,


  • the sixth major extinction on this planet.


  • I often wondered, if there was a United Organization of Organisms --

    よく考えます もし「生命体連合」ー

  • otherwise known as "Uh-Oh" --


  • (Laughter) -- and every organism had a right to vote,


  • would we be voted on the planet, or off the planet?

    人類はこの惑星の居住許可を もらえるだろうか?と

  • I think that vote is occurring right now.

    今や 評決のときだと思います

  • I want to present to you a suite of six mycological solutions,

    私はここで 6つの菌学的解決法を紹介します

  • using fungi, and these solutions are based on mycelium.

    菌類を使った 菌糸体をベースにした方法です

  • The mycelium infuses all landscapes,


  • it holds soils together, it's extremely tenacious.

    土壌をまとめ 非常に屈強です

  • This holds up to 30,000 times its mass.


  • They're the grand molecular disassemblers of nature -- the soil magicians.

    菌類は分子を自然に分解する 土の魔術師です

  • They generate the humus soils across the landmasses of Earth.

    地球の全土で 腐食土を産み出しています

  • We have now discovered that there is a multi-directional transfer

    現在判明しているのは 菌糸体によって分解された栄養素が

  • of nutrients between plants, mitigated by the mcyelium --


  • so the mycelium is the mother

    つまり菌糸体は ハンノキや樺から

  • that is giving nutrients from alder and birch trees

    ドクゼリ ヒマラヤスギ ベイマツへと

  • to hemlocks, cedars and Douglas firs.


  • Dusty and I, we like to say, on Sunday, this is where we go to church.

    ダスティと私にとってここは いわば日曜の教会です

  • I'm in love with the old-growth forest,


  • and I'm a patriotic American because we have those.

    この林があるから 母国のアメリカが好きです

  • Most of you are familiar with Portobello mushrooms.

    ポルトベロマッシュルームは みなさんは大抵ご存知です

  • And frankly, I face a big obstacle.

    正直 それが悩みの種です

  • When I mention mushrooms to somebody,


  • they immediately think Portobellos or magic mushrooms,

    誰もがポルトベロか マジックマッシュルームを思い出し

  • their eyes glaze over, and they think I'm a little crazy.

    目線がうつろになって 私をおかしい人だと思います

  • So, I hope to pierce that prejudice forever with this group.


  • We call it mycophobia,


  • the irrational fear of the unknown, when it comes to fungi.

    菌類に関して現れる 未知のものへのいわれのない恐怖のことです

  • Mushrooms are very fast in their growth.


  • Day 21, day 23, day 25.

    21日目 23日目 25日目です

  • Mushrooms produce strong antibiotics.


  • In fact, we're more closely related to fungi than we are to any other kingdom.

    実は ヒトはどの生物界よりも キノコとの関係が密接です

  • A group of 20 eukaryotic microbiologists


  • published a paper two years ago erecting opisthokonta --

    2年前 「後方べん毛生物」を 取り上げ

  • a super-kingdom that joins animalia and fungi together.

    動物界と菌類をつなぐ 特殊な界だと発表しました

  • We share in common the same pathogens.

    ヒトは菌類と共通の 病原体に感染します

  • Fungi don't like to rot from bacteria,

    菌類はバクテリアによる 腐敗を嫌うため

  • and so our best antibiotics come from fungi.

    ヒトに最適な抗生物質は 菌類由来です

  • But here is a mushroom that's past its prime.


  • After they sporulate, they do rot.

    胞子を出したあと キノコは腐敗する

  • But I propose to you that the sequence of microbes

    しかし 私がここで述べたいのは

  • that occur on rotting mushrooms


  • are essential for the health of the forest.


  • They give rise to the trees,


  • they create the debris fields that feed the mycelium.

    堆積物を形成し それが菌糸体の栄養になるのです

  • And so we see a mushroom here sporulating.


  • And the spores are germinating,


  • and the mycelium forms and goes underground.


  • In a single cubic inch of soil, there can be more than eight miles of these cells.

    菌糸体は1立方インチの土の中に 8マイル以上になることも

  • My foot is covering approximately 300 miles of mycelium.

    私の足の大きさなら 300マイル分です

  • This is photomicrographs from Nick Read and Patrick Hickey.

    ニック・リードとパトリック・ヒッキ-の 顕微鏡写真です

  • And notice that as the mycelium grows,

    ごらんのように 菌糸体が育つにつれ

  • it conquers territory and then it begins the net.

    縄張りを広げ 網を張り始めます

  • I've been a scanning electron microscopist for many years,


  • I have thousands of electron micrographs,


  • and when I'm staring at the mycelium,


  • I realize that they are microfiltration membranes.


  • We exhale carbon dioxide, so does mycelium.

    ヒト同様 菌糸体も 二酸化炭素を放出し

  • It inhales oxygen, just like we do.


  • But these are essentially externalized stomachs and lungs.

    しかし菌糸体の胃や肺は 体外にあり

  • And I present to you a concept that these are extended neurological membranes.

    神経膜の延長のようなもの と考えてください

  • And in these cavities, these micro-cavities form,

    この空洞というか 微小な孔の中に

  • and as they fuse soils, they absorb water.

    土を結合させる際に 水を吸収します

  • These are little wells.


  • And inside these wells, then microbial communities begin to form.

    この「井戸」の中に 微生物のコロニーが形成され

  • And so the spongy soil not only resists erosion,

    スポンジ状の土は 浸食に抵抗するだけでなく

  • but sets up a microbial universe


  • that gives rise to a plurality of other organisms.

    たくさんの生命体を 誕生させます

  • I first proposed, in the early 1990s,

    私が最初に言ったのは 90年代初めでしたが

  • that mycelium is Earth's natural Internet.

    「菌糸体は地球の天然インターネット」 です

  • When you look at the mycelium, they're highly branched.

    菌糸体を見ると 複雑に枝分かれしています

  • And if there's one branch that is broken, then very quickly,


  • because of the nodes of crossing --


  • Internet engineers maybe call them hot points --


  • there are alternative pathways for channeling nutrients and information.

    すぐに栄養素と情報の通り道が 別にできるというわけです

  • The mycelium is sentient.


  • It knows that you are there.


  • When you walk across landscapes,


  • it leaps up in the aftermath of your footsteps trying to grab debris.

    通った所で跳びはねて 堆肥をつかみ取ろうとする

  • So, I believe the invention of the computer Internet


  • is an inevitable consequence


  • of a previously proven, biologically successful model.

    すでに先例としての 生物学的成功例がありますから

  • The Earth invented the computer Internet for its own benefit,

    地球がインターネットを 発明したのは自分のためでしたが

  • and we now, being the top organism on this planet,

    地球上の生命体の頂点に立つ者として 人類は今や

  • are trying to allocate resources in order to protect the biosphere.

    生物圏を保護する為に 資源の分配方法を考えています

  • Going way out, dark matter conforms to the same mycelial archetype.

    驚くべき事に 暗黒物質は 菌糸体の原型と一致します

  • I believe matter begets life;

    私が考えるのは 物質に生命が宿り

  • life becomes single cells; single cells become strings;

    単細胞生物となり 単細胞がつながり

  • strings become chains; chains network.

    連鎖してネットワークを形成した ということです

  • And this is the paradigm that we see throughout the universe.

    これが全宇宙に見られる パラダイムなのです

  • Most of you may not know that fungi were the first organisms to come to land.

    ご存知かもしれませんが 菌類は最初の陸上生物です

  • They came to land 1.3 billion years ago,

    13億年前 陸に上がりました

  • and plants followed several hundred million years later.


  • How is that possible?


  • It's possible because the mycelium produces oxalic acids,

    それは 菌糸体がシュウ酸等をはじめ

  • and many other acids and enzymes,


  • pockmarking rock and grabbing calcium and other minerals

    岩に無数の穴を開け カルシウムなどのミネラルを取り込み

  • and forming calcium oxalates.


  • Makes the rocks crumble, and the first step in the generation of soil.

    そのため岩石はもろくなりこれが 土中生物第一世代の始まりです

  • Oxalic acid is two carbon dioxide molecules joined together.

    シュウ酸は二酸化炭素分子が 2つ結合したものです

  • So, fungi and mycelium


  • sequester carbon dioxide in the form of calcium oxalates.

    シュウ酸カルシウムの形で 二酸化炭素が分離されます

  • And all sorts of other oxalates


  • are also sequestering carbon dioxide through the minerals

    岩石マトリックスから取り込んだ ミネラルと結合して

  • that are being formed and taken out of the rock matrix.


  • This was first discovered in 1859.


  • This is a photograph by Franz Hueber.


  • This photograph's taken 1950s in Saudi Arabia.

    1950年代 サウジアラビアで撮影されました

  • 420 million years ago, this organism existed.


  • It was called Prototaxites.


  • Prototaxites, laying down, was about three feet tall.

    これは倒れた状態ですが 高さは3フィート

  • The tallest plants on Earth at that time were less than two feet.

    当時最も背の高い植物でも 2フィート未満でした

  • Dr. Boyce, at the University of Chicago,


  • published an article in the Journal of Geology


  • this past year determining that Prototaxites was a giant fungus,

    プロトタキシーテスは 巨大な菌類だと断定しました

  • a giant mushroom.


  • Across the landscapes of Earth were dotted these giant mushrooms.

    地球にはこういう 巨大キノコがいた

  • All across most land masses.


  • And these existed for tens of millions of years.

    数千万年の間 この種は存続した

  • Now, we've had several extinction events, and as we march forward --

    その後 数度の大量絶滅を経て

  • 65 million years ago -- most of you know about it --


  • we had an asteroid impact.


  • The Earth was struck by an asteroid,


  • a huge amount of debris was jettisoned into the atmosphere.


  • Sunlight was cut off, and fungi inherited the Earth.

    日光は遮られ 地球に菌類がはびこりました

  • Those organisms that paired with fungi were rewarded,

    キノコと組んだ生命体は 恩恵を受けました

  • because fungi do not need light.


  • More recently, at Einstein University,


  • they just determined that fungi use radiation as a source of energy,

    植物が光を使うように 菌類が放射能を使って

  • much like plants use light.

    エネルギーを作ることが 判明しました

  • So, the prospect of fungi existing on other planets elsewhere,

    他の惑星に 菌類が存在するかの見通しについて

  • I think, is a forgone conclusion,


  • at least in my own mind.


  • The largest organism in the world is in Eastern Oregon.

    世界最大の生命体は 東オレゴンにあります

  • I couldn't miss it. It was 2,200 acres in size:

    広さ2,200エーカー 2千年前のものを

  • 2,200 acres in size, 2,000 years old.


  • The largest organism on the planet is a mycelial mat, one cell wall thick.

    世界で一番広い面積の生物は 細胞壁の厚みの菌糸体のマットです

  • How is it that this organism can be so large,

    これほど大きいのに 厚みが細胞壁なんて生物が

  • and yet be one cell wall thick,


  • whereas we have five or six skin layers that protect us?


  • The mycelium, in the right conditions, produces a mushroom --

    菌糸体は環境さえ良好なら キノコを生やします

  • it bursts through with such ferocity that it can break asphalt.

    その勢いは アスファルトをも破るほどです

  • We were involved with several experiments.


  • I'm going to show you six, if I can,


  • solutions for helping to save the world.


  • Battelle Laboratories and I joined up in Bellingham, Washington.

    これはバテル研究所と私は ベリンハムでの共同実験をしました

  • There were four piles saturated with diesel and other petroleum waste:

    石油廃棄物に浸した 4つの山があります

  • one was a control pile; one pile was treated with enzymes;

    1つは対照実験用 1つは酵素で処理

  • one pile was treated with bacteria;


  • and our pile we inoculated with mushroom mycelium.


  • The mycelium absorbs the oil.


  • The mycelium is producing enzymes --

    菌がペルオキシダーゼという 酵素を作り

  • peroxidases -- that break carbon-hydrogen bonds.


  • These are the same bonds that hold hydrocarbons together.


  • So, the mycelium becomes saturated with the oil,


  • and then, when we returned six weeks later,


  • all the tarps were removed,


  • all the other piles were dead, dark and stinky.


  • We came back to our pile, it was covered


  • with hundreds of pounds of oyster mushrooms,

    大量のヒラタケに覆われ 明るい色をしていました

  • and the color changed to a light form.

    酵素により炭化水素が 炭水化物 つまり

  • The enzymes remanufactured the hydrocarbons


  • into carbohydrates -- fungal sugars.


  • Some of these mushrooms are very happy mushrooms.


  • They're very large.


  • They're showing how much nutrition that they could've obtained.

    でもこれとは別のことが起こって そこから私は天啓を得ました