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  • Hedonism Hedonism is a school of thought that argues

  • that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. In very simple terms, a hedonist strives to

  • maximize net pleasure . Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people

  • have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure

  • possible to them. It is also the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass

  • their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by a student of

  • Socrates, Aristippus of Cyrene. He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good.

  • Etymology The name derives from the Greek word for "delight"

  • (ἡδονισμός hēdonismos from ἡδονή hēdonē "pleasure", cognate with English

  • sweet + suffix -ισμός -ismos "ism"). History of development

  • Sumerian civilization In the original Old Babylonian version of

  • the Epic of Gilgamesh, which was written soon after the invention of writing, Siduri gave

  • the following advice "Fill your belly. Day and night make merry. Let days be full of

  • joy. Dance and make music day and night These things alone are the concern of men", which

  • may represent the first recorded advocacy of a hedonistic philosophy.

  • Ancient Egypt Scenes of a harper entertaining guests at

  • a feast was common in ancient Egyptian tombs (see Harper's Songs), and sometimes contained

  • hedonistic elements, calling guests to submit to pleasure because they cannot be sure that

  • they will be rewarded for good with a blissful afterlife. The following is a song attributed

  • to the reign of one of the Intef kings before or after the 12th dynasty, and the text was

  • used in the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. Cārvāka

  • rvāka was an Indian hedonist school of thought that arose approximately 600 BCE,

  • and died out in the 14th century CE. Thervākas maintained that the Hindu scriptures are false,

  • that the priests are liars, and that there is no afterlife, and that pleasure should

  • be the aim of living. Unlike other Indian schools of philosophy, thervākas argued

  • that there is nothing wrong with sensual indulgence. They held a naturalistic worldview. They believed

  • that perception is the only source of knowledge. Classic schools of antiquity

  • Democritus seems to be the earliest philosopher on record to have categorically embraced a

  • hedonistic philosophy; he called the supreme goal of life "contentment" or "cheerfulness",

  • claiming that "joy and sorrow are the distinguishing mark of things beneficial and harmful" (DK

  • 68 B 188). The Cyrenaic school

  • The Cyrenaics were an ultra-hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century

  • BCE, supposedly by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed

  • to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger. The

  • school was so called after Cyrene, the birthplace of Aristippus. It was one of the earliest

  • Socratic schools. The Cyrenaics taught that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, which

  • meant not just the absence of pain, but positively enjoyable sensations. Of these, momentary

  • pleasures, especially physical ones, are stronger than those of anticipation or memory. They

  • did, however, recognize the value of social obligation, and that pleasure could be gained

  • from altruism. Theodorus the Atheist was a latter exponent of hedonism who was a disciple

  • of younger Aristippus, while becoming well known for exposing atheism. The school died

  • out within a century, and was replaced by Epicureanism.

  • The Cyrenaics were known for their skeptical theory of knowledge. They reduced logic to

  • a basic doctrine concerning the criterion of truth. They thought that we can know with

  • certainty our immediate sense-experiences (for instance, that I am having a sweet sensation

  • now) but can know nothing about the nature of the objects that cause these sensations

  • (for instance, that the honey is sweet). They also denied that we can have knowledge of

  • what the experiences of other people are like. All knowledge is immediate sensation. These

  • sensations are motions which are purely subjective, and are painful, indifferent or pleasant,

  • according as they are violent, tranquil or gentle. Further they are entirely individual,

  • and can in no way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge. Feeling, therefore,

  • is the only possible criterion of knowledge and of conduct. Our ways of being affected

  • are alone knowable. Thus the sole aim for everyone should be pleasure.

  • Cyrenaicism deduces a single, universal aim for all people which is pleasure. Furthermore,

  • all feeling is momentary and homogeneous. It follows that past and future pleasure have

  • no real existence for us, and that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind.

  • Socrates had spoken of the higher pleasures of the intellect; the Cyrenaics denied the

  • validity of this distinction and said that bodily pleasures, being more simple and more

  • intense, were preferable. Momentary pleasure, preferably of a physical kind, is the only

  • good for humans. However some actions which give immediate pleasure can create more than

  • their equivalent of pain. The wise person should be in control of pleasures rather than

  • be enslaved to them, otherwise pain will result, and this requires judgement to evaluate the

  • different pleasures of life. Regard should be paid to law and custom, because even though

  • these things have no intrinsic value on their own, violating them will lead to unpleasant

  • penalties being imposed by others. Likewise, friendship and justice are useful because

  • of the pleasure they provide. Thus the Cyrenaics believed in the hedonistic value of social

  • obligation and altruistic behaviour. Epicureanism

  • Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. 341–c.

  • 270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps

  • of Democritus and Leucippus. His materialism led him to a general stance against superstition

  • or the idea of divine intervention. Following Aristippusabout whom very little is knownEpicurus

  • believed that the greatest good was to seek modest, sustainable "pleasure" in the form

  • of a state of tranquility and freedom from fear (ataraxia) and absence of bodily pain

  • (aponia) through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of our desires.

  • The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form.

  • Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure as the sole

  • intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy

  • of a simple life make it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood.

  • In the Epicurean view, the highest pleasure (tranquility and freedom from fear) was obtained

  • by knowledge, friendship and living a virtuous and temperate life. He lauded the enjoyment

  • of simple pleasures, by which he meant abstaining from bodily desires, such as sex and appetites,

  • verging on asceticism. He argued that when eating, one should not eat too richly, for

  • it could lead to dissatisfaction later, such as the grim realization that one could not

  • afford such delicacies in the future. Likewise, sex could lead to increased lust and dissatisfaction

  • with the sexual partner. Epicurus did not articulate a broad system of social ethics

  • that has survived but had a unique version of the Golden Rule.

  • Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main

  • opponent of Stoicism. Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. After the death of Epicurus,

  • his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the

  • Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era (such as those in Antiochia, Alexandria,

  • Rhodes and Ercolano). The poet Lucretius is its most known Roman proponent. By the end

  • of the Roman Empire, having undergone Christian attack and repression, Epicureanism had all

  • but died out, and would be resurrected in the 17th century by the atomist Pierre Gassendi,

  • who adapted it to the Christian doctrine. Some writings by Epicurus have survived. Some

  • scholars consider the epic poem On the Nature of Things by Lucretius to present in one unified

  • work the core arguments and theories of Epicureanism. Many of the papyrus scrolls unearthed at the

  • Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum are Epicurean texts. At least some are thought to have belonged

  • to the Epicurean Philodemus. Mohism

  • Mohism was a philosophical school of thought founded by Mozi in the 5th century BCE. It

  • paralleled the utilitarianism later developed by English thinkers. As Confucianism became

  • the preferred philosophy of later Chinese dynasties, starting from the Emperor Wu of

  • Han, Mohism and other non-Confucian philosophical schools of thought were suppressed.

  • Christian hedonism Christian hedonism is a controversial Christian

  • doctrine current in some evangelical circles, particularly those of the Reformed tradition.

  • " Christian Hedonism may describe the theology of Jonathan Edwards. In the 17th century the

  • atomist Pierre Gassendi, adapted Epicureanism to the Christian doctrine.

  • Utilitarianism Utilitarianism addresses problems with moral

  • motivation neglected by Kantianism by giving a central role to happiness. It is an ethical

  • theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall "good"

  • of the society. It is thus one form of consequentialism meaning that the moral worth of an action

  • is determined by its resulting outcome. The most influential contributors to this theory

  • are considered to be Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. The 18th and 19th-century British

  • philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill defended the ethical theory of utilitarianism,

  • according to which we should perform whichever action maximizes the aggregate good. Conjoining

  • hedonism, as a view as to what is good for people, to utilitarianism has the result that

  • all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest total amount of happiness (Hedonic

  • Calculus). Though consistent in their pursuit of happiness, Bentham and Mill’s versions

  • of hedonism differ. There are two somewhat basic schools of thought on hedonism:

  • One school, grouped around Jeremy Bentham, defends a quantitative approach. Bentham believed

  • that the value of a pleasure could be quantitatively understood. Essentially, he believed the value

  • of pleasure to be its intensity multiplied by its duration - so it was not just the number

  • of pleasures, but their intensity and how long they lasted that must be taken into account.

  • Other proponents, like John Stuart Mill, argue a qualitative approach. Mill believed that

  • there can be different levels of pleasure - higher quality pleasure is better than lower

  • quality pleasure. Mill also argues that simpler beings (he often refers to pigs) have an easier

  • access to the simpler pleasures; since they do not see other aspects of life, they can

  • simply indulge in their lower pleasures. The more elaborate beings tend to spend more thought

  • on other matters and hence lessen the time for simple pleasure. It is therefore more

  • difficult for them to indulge in such "simple pleasures" in the same manner.

  • Contemporary approaches Contemporary proponents of hedonism are Swedish

  • philosopher Torbjörnnnsjö and Fred Feldman. Michel Onfray

  • A dedicated contemporary hedonist philosopher and on the history of hedonistic thought is

  • the French Michel Onfray. He defines hedonism "as an introspective attitude to life based

  • on taking pleasure yourself and pleasuring others, without harming yourself or anyone

  • else." "Onfray's philosophical project is to define an ethical hedonism, a joyous utilitarianism,

  • and a generalized aesthetic of sensual materialism that explores how to use the brain's and the

  • body's capacities to their fullest extent -- while restoring philosophy to a useful

  • role in art, politics, and everyday life and decisions."

  • Onfray's works "have explored the philosophical resonances and components of (and challenges

  • to) science, painting, gastronomy, sex and sensuality, bioethics, wine, and writing.

  • His most ambitious project is his projected six-volume Counter-history of Philosophy,"

  • of which three have been published. For him "In opposition to the ascetic ideal advocated

  • by the dominant school of thought, hedonism suggests identifying the highest good with

  • your own pleasure and that of others; the one must never be indulged at the expense

  • of sacrificing the other. Obtaining this balancemy pleasure at the same time as the pleasure

  • of otherspresumes that we approach the subject from different anglespolitical,

  • ethical, aesthetic, erotic, bioethical, pedagogical, historiographical…."

  • For this he has "written books on each of these facets of the same world view." His

  • philosophy aims "for "micro-revolutions, " or revolutions of the individual and small groups

  • of like-minded people who live by his hedonistic, libertarian values."

  • Abolitionism The Abolitionist Society is a transhumanist

  • group calling for the abolition of suffering in all sentient life through the use of advanced

  • biotechnology. Their core philosophy is negative utilitarianism. David Pearce is a theorist

  • of this perspective and he believes and promotes the idea that there exists a strong ethical

  • imperative for humans to work towards the abolition of suffering in all sentient life.

  • His book-length internet manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative outlines how technologies such

  • as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, pharmacology, and neurosurgery could potentially converge

  • to eliminate all forms of unpleasant experience among human and non-human animals, replacing

  • suffering with gradients of well-being, a project he refers to as "paradise engineering".

  • A transhumanist and a vegan, Pearce believes that we (or our future posthuman descendants)

  • have a responsibility not only to avoid cruelty to animals within human society but also to

  • alleviate the suffering of animals in the wild.

  • Criticisms There is a critical point where the value

  • of hedonistic properties is affected by actual age and the depreciation schedule turns upward.

  • It is argued that if social constructionism is going to come to grips with morality and

  • agency it must abandon explanations that invoke the necessary causation of metaphysical abstractions

  • such as hedonism.

Hedonism Hedonism is a school of thought that argues

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ヘドニズム (Hedonism)

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    Kim に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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