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  • We are going to be talking persuasion in this chapter and, for this lecture, I am going

  • to be using all examples of advertising. I am doing this for two reasons. One is because

  • they're good illustrations of the content. But two, again, I want to continue with the message

  • that social psychology is everywhere and it is certainly present in advertising that always

  • need and we absolutely see advertising all the time in our life. So now, whenever you

  • are seeing advertising, I also want you to think about social psychology and how you

  • can use social psychology to understand your daily lives.

  • This is the elaboration likelihood model. The elaboration likelihood model says that

  • persuasion occurs through one of two routes, the central route or the peripheral route.

  • The central route uses facts to persuade people and the peripheral route uses feelings. So,

  • here is an example of the central route and the peripheral route in an ad. I will give

  • a moment to look at these and we will talk about them. So you can see the central route

  • ad is giving a lot of facts about this Mercedes- Benz and it’s giving you things, you know,

  • concrete things, to think about why you might want to purchase a Mercedes-Benz. If you contrast

  • it with the peripheral route ad, it’s just a cool-looking ad and it makes you think like

  • Woo, the Mercedes-Benz is kind of cool.” There is no facts you are learning about the

  • Mercedes-Benz but you are having positive feelings towards this Mercedes-Benz. So, these

  • ads are examples of a central route ad and a peripheral route ad.

  • Both elements into an ad that’s best and pause the video, and look at this. When you

  • are ready, un-pause it and we will talk about it. So, in this ad, you have a peripheral

  • going to have positive feelings towards that baby. It also has central route because there

  • are facts and the facts are talking about protecting her from these childhood diseases

  • by giving her a vaccine. In this ad, it’s using both peripheral route and central route to give a message.

  • About promotion versus prevention focus. A

  • promotion focus ad or a persuasive argument is going to sayHey! If you do this, then

  • good things will happen.” A prevent focus will sayHey! If you do this, bad things

  • will happen.” A promotion focus ad is going to be about all the positive things and a

  • prevention focus ad will talk about the negative things. So what I am going to do is I'm

  • going to have you click this link below and watch this Subway food ad. After you watch

  • it, come back to the lecture and, while you are watching it, think about which part of

  • the ad is promotion focus and which part of the ad is prevention focus. So, go ahead and

  • click the link. When you are done, come to this lecture.

  • So, that ad always makes me laugh. The first part of the ad is the prevention focus part

  • of the ad talking about how you don’t want these things, you don’t want double

  • blubber or thunder thighs. The promotion part of the ad is the part of the ad that talks

  • about these are the things that fit into healthy heart diets and you do want to have a healthy

  • heart. This ad does a great job of illustrating both prevention focus and promotion focus.

  • That’s why I always use it but I want to take a little bit more time to talk about

  • the distinction between prevention focus and promotion focus. Prevention focus ads tend

  • to be far more effective than promotion focus ads because prevention focus is on the basis

  • of fear. Fear is a very basic emotion. And if you can get somebody by their fear, it’s

  • really hard to overcome this. I am going to give an example of a persuasive message that

  • has prevention focus and how, despite the fact that this message is really not correct,

  • people continue to believe it because it’s framed prevention focus and it makes it hard

  • for them to evaluate this message. So what we are going to talk about is the

  • MMR vaccine and autism hoax. Some of you may always know about this. In 1998, Andrew Wakefield

  • published a paper linking MMR vaccine to autism. First, I should say that there are many many

  • more vaccines of MMR vaccines. One of the problems is that people are taking this paper

  • and they are applying it from just MMR vaccines to all vaccines. But we are going to explain

  • how this paper itself isn’t worth anything. There are serious and major violations in

  • this studyappalling kinds of violation. So first, the researcher was paid to find

  • evidence that this vaccine causes autism and had applied patents for an alternative vaccine

  • so he was paid for and he also had even more financial interest because he wanted to prove

  • that the vaccine that was being used wasn’t worthwhile so his vaccine would be selected.

  • So he had a huge financial incentive to find that there was a link between this particular

  • vaccine and autism. Next, it only had a sample size of 12 people and several of the participants

  • parents had financial incentive to report that the vaccine causes autism. So it was

  • a very small sample size and, even with a small sample size, it’s hard to believe

  • that a lot of those parents were correctly reporting what was going on because they had

  • a financial reason to say that there was the link. So, this paper in 2010 was fully retracted

  • and Wakefield was thrown out of the medical profession. There are some people who said

  • that this is the most dangerous medical hoax within the last hundred years. The rise of

  • measles, mumps, and rubella is a serious thing and there are a lot of doctors who are very

  • concerned about it. None of that would have happened if this guy hadn’t been trying

  • to make money. That is sort of the information why the study is totally false. Further, signs

  • of autism tend to manifest around the age as when children are receiving vaccines. Now,

  • we are all very good critical thinkers and we are all psychologists here and we know

  • that correlation does not equal to causation. So even if your child receives a vaccine and

  • later on develops signs of autism, that doesn’t mean the vaccine caused autism because age

  • is a confound. Age is happening both to determine when your child should be getting vaccines

  • and when signs of autism might manifest. As psychologists and people who understand research,

  • you understand that you cannot make a causal claim with just correlational data. Lastly,

  • there is overwhelming evidence that vaccines don’t cause autism. There was a meta-analysis

  • of 1.2 million children, which is pretty much too big to even wrap your head around, by

  • Taylor, Swerdferger, and Eslick (2014). They found that vaccines don’t cause autism and,

  • in fact, children who did not have the vaccine were 16% more likely to have autism than children

  • who did. So, not only do vaccines not cause autism, but the children who didn’t have

  • the vaccine were even more likely to have autism. So, why do I present all this information?

  • Because the point is that, if you tell a parent, this vaccine might cause autism. That is a

  • prevention focus message sayingDon’t get this vaccine because, if you do, this

  • bad thing is going to happen, your child might have autism.” Despite all of this evidence

  • that you can see right now on your screen that there is no reason to believe that this

  • vaccine causes autism, many parent cannot overcome that prevention focus message and

  • take this information into consideration and realize that vaccines actually should be given

  • to their children. Because prevention focus message is so incredibly strong and people

  • find it very difficult to overcome them, they are very very effective. In this case, it’s

  • actually causing a huge problem, a lot of children are getting sick and there is a lot

  • of doctors who are very concerned. This prevention focus message is having sort of a disastrous

  • effect. Even with all of this evidence that you can give to parents, they cannot overcome

  • this prevention focus message. So, this is meant to explain to you how strong prevention

  • focus messages can be.

We are going to be talking persuasion in this chapter and, for this lecture, I am going

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B2 中上級

説得1:メッセージ成分 (Persuasion 1: message component)

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    Yogi に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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