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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    17才の頃から ジャーナリストをしていますが

  • I've been a journalist now since I was about 17,

    この業界は今 とても面白いです

  • and it's an interesting industry to be in at the moment,

    ご存じの通り メディア業界では

  • because as you all know, there's a huge amount of upheaval

    ものすごい変化が 起きているからです

  • going on in media, and most of you probably know this

    ただ ほとんどの人は ビジネスモデルの崩壊や

  • from the business angle, which is that the business model

    Googleの一人勝ちといった

  • is pretty screwed, and as my grandfather would say,

    観点から変化を捉えています

  • the profits have all been gobbled up by Google.

    ジャーナリストとして 本当に面白いですが

  • So it's a really interesting time to be a journalist,

    私が興味あるのは記事自体の 変化ではありません

  • but the upheaval that I'm interested in is not on the output side.

    書く前の段階の変化 つまり情報入手や ―

  • It's on the input side. It's concern with

    取材方法に関心があります

  • how we get information and how we gather the news.

    力関係は新聞社から読者へと

  • And that's changed, because we've had a huge shift

    大きくシフトし

  • in the balance of power from

    取材が様変わりしたからです

  • the news organizations to the audience.

    読み手はこれまで ニュースに

  • And the audience for such a long time was in a position

    影響も変化も与えられませんでした

  • where they didn't have any way of affecting news

    接点がなかったのです

  • or making any change. They couldn't really connect.

    でも状況は変わりました

  • And that's changed irrevocably.

    私が初めてメディアに関心をもったのは

  • My first connection with the news media was

    1984年 BBCがストを実施したときです

  • in 1984, the BBC had a one-day strike.

    マンガまで休みになり 怒っていたのです

  • I wasn't happy. I was angry. I couldn't see my cartoons.

    だから手紙を書きました

  • So I wrote a letter.

    嫌がらせの手紙に 最高の結びは こうです

  • And it's a very effective way of ending your hate mail:

    「愛を込めて マーカム 4才」 これは今でも通用します

  • "Love Markham, Aged 4." Still works.

    ストに与えた インパクトは不明です

  • I'm not sure if I had any impact on the one-day strike,

    ただ わかったのは 返事に3週間もかかったこと

  • but what I do know is that it took them three weeks to get back to me.

    行動を起こして 結果を知りたくても

  • And that was the round journey. It took that long for anyone

    そんなに時間がかかったのです

  • to have any impact and get some feedback.

    それもすっかり変わりました

  • And that's changed now because, as journalists,

    誰もが瞬時にやり取りします

  • we interact in real time. We're not in a position

    読者が記事に反応した時代は終わり

  • where the audience is reacting to news.

    今ではジャーナリストが 読者に頼っているのです

  • We're reacting to the audience, and we're actually relying on them.

    読者がニュースを探してくれます

  • They're helping us find the news. They're helping us

    取材の切り口も 皆が知りたい事も 読者が教えてくれます

  • figure out what is the best angle to take and what is the stuff that they want to hear.

    全部リアルタイムで あっという間です

  • So it's a real-time thing. It's much quicker. It's happening

    いつもこんな状態で 追いつくのに必死です

  • on a constant basis, and the journalist is always playing catch up.

    どのくらい読者に頼っているか ―

  • To give an example of how we rely on the audience,

    9月5日 コスタリカの 地震を例に 見てみましょう

  • on the 5th of September in Costa Rica, an earthquake hit.

    M7.6の大地震でした

  • It was a 7.6 magnitude. It was fairly big.

    地震が起きて60秒後 ―

  • And 60 seconds is the amount of time it took

    250km先のマナグアが揺れました

  • for it to travel 250 kilometers to Managua.

    マナグアが揺れるまでに 60秒かかっているのです

  • So the ground shook in Managua 60 seconds after it hit the epicenter.

    その30秒後 第一報がツイートされます

  • Thirty seconds later, the first message went onto Twitter,

    "temblor" 地震というつぶやきでした

  • and this was someone saying "temblor," which means earthquake.

    地震が到達するのに

  • So 60 seconds was how long it took

    60秒かかりました

  • for the physical earthquake to travel.

    その30秒後には 地震のニュースが

  • Thirty seconds later news of that earthquake had traveled

    瞬時に世界中を駆け巡ります

  • all around the world, instantly. Everyone in the world,

    世界中の誰もが マナグアの地震を

  • hypothetically, had the potential to know that an earthquake

    知り得たのです

  • was happening in Managua.

    きっかけは最初の1人が

  • And that happened because this one person had

    状況を伝えたいと思い 投稿したことです

  • a documentary instinct, which was to post a status update,

    いまは誰もが投稿します

  • which is what we all do now, so if something happens,

    最新情報や写真やビデオは

  • we put our status update, or we post a photo,

    絶え間なくクラウドに 流れ込んでいきます

  • we post a video, and it all goes up into the cloud in a constant stream.

    常に膨大なデータが

  • And what that means is just constant,

    アップロードされています

  • huge volumes of data going up.

    データによれば

  • It's actually staggering. When you look at the numbers,

    YouTubeでは毎分72時間以上の ビデオが投稿されます

  • every minute there are 72 more hours

    YouTubeでは毎分72時間以上の ビデオが投稿されます

  • of video on YouTube.

    1秒間に1時間分を超える 投稿があるのです

  • So that's, every second, more than an hour of video gets uploaded.

    Instagramでは1秒に58枚の写真 ―

  • And in photos, Instagram, 58 photos are uploaded to Instagram a second.

    Facebookでは 3,500枚以上の 写真が投稿されます

  • More than three and a half thousand photos go up onto Facebook.

    だから 私がこの話を終える頃には

  • So by the time I'm finished talking here, there'll be 864

    YouTubeには864時間分のビデオ ―

  • more hours of video on Youtube than there were when I started,

    FacebookとInstagramには 250万枚の写真が投稿されています

  • and two and a half million more photos on Facebook and Instagram than when I started.

    あらゆる情報が入手可能な立場は

  • So it's an interesting position to be in as a journalist,

    ジャーナリストにとって面白い状況です

  • because we should have access to everything.

    世界中の出来事を

  • Any event that happens anywhere in the world, I should be able to know about it

    ほぼ同時に しかもタダで 知ることができます

  • pretty much instantaneously, as it happens, for free.

    この状況は 誰にとっても同じです

  • And that goes for every single person in this room.

    ただ問題があって 情報が大量になると

  • The only problem is, when you have that much information,

    価値があるものを見つけるのが

  • you have to find the good stuff, and that can be

    難しくなります

  • incredibly difficult when you're dealing with those volumes.

    これを痛切に感じたのが

  • And nowhere was this brought home more than during

    ハリケーン・サンディのときです

  • Hurricane Sandy. So what you had in Hurricane Sandy was

    長らく経験していなかった 巨大ハリケーンが

  • a superstorm, the likes of which we hadn't seen for a long time,

    iPhoneの総本山を襲ったのです (笑)

  • hitting the iPhone capital of the universe -- (Laughter) --

    さらに多種多様なメディアを みんなが持っています

  • and you got volumes of media like we'd never seen before.

    だからニセモノや

  • And that meant that journalists had to deal with fakes,

    再投稿された古い写真 ―

  • so we had to deal with old photos that were being reposted.

    過去の写真を使った合成写真を

  • We had to deal with composite images

    ジャーナリストは 見分ける必要があります

  • that were merging photos from previous storms.

    映画『デイ・アフター・トゥモロー』の 写真まで混じっています (笑)

  • We had to deal with images from films like "The Day After Tomorrow." (Laughter)

    中には リアルすぎて

  • And we had to deal with images that were so realistic

    本物かどうかわからないものも

  • it was nearly difficult to tell if they were real at all.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    冗談はさておき Instagramからの この写真では

  • But joking aside, there were images like this one from Instagram

    徹底した検証が必要でした

  • which was subjected to a grilling by journalists.

    Instagramでフィルタが かけられています

  • They weren't really sure. It was filtered in Instagram.

    光の当たり方が疑わしく見えました

  • The lighting was questioned. Everything was questioned about it.

    でも これは本物でした

  • And it turned out to be true. It was from Avenue C

    水没したマンハッタン アベニューCです

  • in downtown Manhattan, which was flooded.

    本物と判明したのは

  • And the reason that they could tell that it was real

    情報源が特定できたからです

  • was because they could get to the source, and in this case,

    NYのフード・ブロガーで

  • these guys were New York food bloggers.

    よく知られ 尊敬されていました

  • They were well respected. They were known.

    この場合は本物だと証明できました

  • So this one wasn't a debunk, it was actually something that they could prove.

    これがジャーナリストの仕事 情報の確認です

  • And that was the job of the journalist. It was filtering all this stuff.

    外に出て情報を集め

  • And you were, instead of going and finding the information

    それを読者に見せる代わりに

  • and bringing it back to the reader, you were holding back

    問題になりそうな情報を止めます

  • the stuff that was potentially damaging.

    信頼できる情報源の 発見が重要になるため

  • And finding the source becomes more and more important --

    ジャーナリストは Twitterを頻繁に利用します

  • finding the good source -- and Twitter is where most journalists now go.

    大量の情報が集まるので 使い方がわかれば

  • It's like the de facto real-time newswire,

    まるで記事配信サービスのように 利用できます

  • if you know how to use it, because there is so much on Twitter.

    役に立つ反面 難しい面もあることが

  • And a good example of how useful it can be

    2011年のエジプト革命でわかりました

  • but also how difficult was the Egyptian revolution in 2011.

    アラビア語が話せず エジプトではなく

  • As a non-Arabic speaker, as someone who was looking

    ダブリンにいる私にとっては

  • from the outside, from Dublin,

    Twitterリストや

  • Twitter lists, and lists of good sources,

    質の高い情報源のリストや 信頼できる人が 重要でした

  • people we could establish were credible, were really important.

    そんなリストを 一から作るには どうしたらよいか?

  • And how do you build a list like that from scratch?

    何を探すべきか知らないと とても大変です

  • Well, it can be quite difficult, but you have to know what to look for.

    これはイタリアの学者 アンドレ・パニソンが

  • This visualization was done by an Italian academic.

    タハリール広場での Twitter上のやり取りを

  • He's called André Pannison, and he basically

    視覚化したものです

  • took the Twitter conversation in Tahrir Square

    ムバラク大統領が 辞任した その日です

  • on the day that Hosni Mubarak would eventually resign,

    点はリツイートで 誰かがメッセージを

  • and the dots you can see are retweets, so when someone

    リツイートすると 2点がつながります

  • retweets a message, a connection is made between two dots,

    回数が多い程 ―

  • and the more times that message is retweeted by other people,

    つながりが増えていきます

  • the more you get to see these nodes, these connections being made.

    すごい方法で会話を視覚化しています

  • And it's an amazing way of visualizing the conversation,

    ただ ここから得られるのは 誰に関心をもち

  • but what you get is hints at who is more interesting

    誰を調べるべきかを 知る手がかりだけです

  • and who is worth investigating.

    会話が展開すると どんどん活発になり

  • And as the conversation grew and grew, it became

    最終的に 会話は

  • more and more lively, and eventually you were left

    巨大な リズムを刻む点の塊になります

  • with this huge, big, rhythmic pointer of this conversation.

    つながりを見て こう思うかも

  • You could find the nodes, though, and then you went,

    「彼らについて調べよう

  • and you go, "Right, I've got to investigate these people.

    何か知ってるかもしれない

  • These are the ones that are obviously making sense.

    どんな人間か 調べてみよう」

  • Let's see who they are."

    私たちジャーナリストは 情報があふれる今 ―

  • Now in the deluge of information, this is where

    ウェブの同時性に とても興味を覚えます

  • the real-time web gets really interesting for a journalist like myself,

    この種の調査に使えるツールが

  • because we have more tools than ever

    今はたくさんあるからです

  • to do that kind of investigation.

    以前よりも とても詳しく

  • And when you start digging into the sources, you can go

    情報源を調べることができます

  • further and further than you ever could before.

    よさそうなネタを見つけたと思っても

  • Sometimes you come across a piece of content that

    本当に使えるかどうか ―

  • is so compelling, you want to use it, you're dying to use it,

    確信がもてない場合があります

  • but you're not 100 percent sure if you can because

    信頼できる情報源か ―

  • you don't know if the source is credible.

    合成か 再投稿か わからないからです

  • You don't know if it's a scrape. You don't know if it's a re-upload.

    調べる必要があります

  • And you have to do that investigative work.

    ご覧頂いているビデオは

  • And this video, which I'm going to let run through,

    2週間前に見つけました

  • was one we discovered a couple of weeks ago.

    ビデオ 「風が強くなってきたわ」

  • Video: Getting real windy in just a second.

    (風雨の音)

  • (Rain and wind sounds)

    (爆発音)「大変!」

  • (Explosion) Oh, shit!

    プロデューサーなら 放送したくなるはずです

  • Markham Nolan: Okay, so now if you're a news producer, this is something

    すごい掘り出し物ですから

  • you'd love to run with, because obviously, this is gold.

    生々しい反応です

  • You know? This is a fantastic reaction from someone,

    裏庭で撮影されました

  • very genuine video that they've shot in their back garden.

    でも 本物か ニセモノか 古いものか

  • But how do you find if this person, if it's true, if it's faked,

    再投稿かを知る方法は?

  • or if it's something that's old and that's been reposted?

    ビデオを調べて わかったのは

  • So we set about going to work on this video, and

    YouTubeのユーザー名だけでした

  • the only thing that we had to go on was the username on the YouTube account.

    このアカウントの投稿は 1件だけ

  • There was only one video posted to that account,

    ユーザー名は "Rita Krill"

  • and the username was Rita Krill.

    本名か 偽名かはわかりません

  • And we didn't know if Rita existed or if it was a fake name.

    そこで ネット上の 無料ツールで調べ始めました

  • But we started looking, and we used free Internet tools to do so.

    まずSpokeoで名前を探しました

  • The first one was called Spokeo, which allowed us to look for Rita Krills.

    全米を調べ NY ペンシルベニア ―

  • So we looked all over the U.S. We found them in New York,

    ネバダ フロリダで この名を見つけました

  • we found them in Pennsylvania, Nevada and Florida.

    次にWolfram Alphaを使って

  • So we went and we looked for a second free Internet tool

    ビデオが投稿された日の

  • called Wolfram Alpha, and we checked the weather reports

    気象情報をチェックしました

  • for the day in which this video had been uploaded,

    名前が挙がった場所の内 ―

  • and when we went through all those various cities,

    その日 フロリダが雷雨でした

  • we found that in Florida, there were thunderstorms and rain on the day.

    だからWhitePagesの

  • So we went to the white pages, and we found,

    電話帳でRita Krillをいくつか見つけ

  • we looked through the Rita Krills in the phonebook,

    住所を洗ったところ ―

  • and we looked through a couple of different addresses,

    Google Mapsで 家を見つけました

  • and that took us to Google Maps, where we found a house.

    ビデオと よく似た ―

  • And we found a house with a swimming pool that looked

    プールがある家です 再びビデオを見て

  • remarkably like Rita's. So we went back to the video,

    ヒントを探しました

  • and we had to look for clues that we could cross-reference.

    ビデオをよく見ると 大きなパラソルと

  • So if you look in the video, there's the big umbrella,

    白いエアマットがあり

  • there's a white lilo in the pool,

    プールの角は曲線を描いています

  • there are some unusually rounded edges in the swimming pool,

    背景には木が2本

  • and there's two trees in the background.

    Google Mapsに戻り よく見ると

  • And we went back to Google Maps, and we looked a little bit closer,

    エアマットも

  • and sure enough, there's the white lilo,

    2本の木も パラソルもあります

  • there are the two trees,

    写真では閉じています

  • there's the umbrella. It's actually folded in this photo.

    少し工夫すると プールの角が丸いこともわかります

  • Little bit of trickery. And there are the rounded edges on the swimming pool.

    調査をもとにリタに電話をかけ

  • So we were able to call Rita, clear the video,

    自分で撮ったものだと確認しました

  • make sure that it had been shot, and then our clients

    クライアントは安心して放映できました

  • were delighted because they were able to run it without being worried.

    一方 真実を知ることが

  • Sometimes the search for truth, though,

    重大な結果をともなう場合があります

  • is a little bit less flippant, and it has much greater consequences.

    私達がシリアに注目するのは

  • Syria has been really interesting for us, because obviously

    戦争犯罪の証拠となりうる情報の

  • a lot of the time you're trying to debunk stuff that can be

    真偽を判断することが 当然 多くなるからです

  • potentially war crime evidence, so this is where YouTube

    この場合 YouTubeが

  • actually becomes the most important repository

    世界情勢を知るために 重要な情報源です

  • of information about what's going on in the world.

    このビデオは かなり残酷なので

  • So this video, I'm not going to show you the whole thing,

    音声の一部を お聞きください

  • because it's quite gruesome, but you'll hear some of the sounds.

    出所はシリアのハマーです

  • This is from Hama.

    (叫び声)

  • Video: (Shouting)

    映像は血だらけの死体が

  • And what this video shows, when you watch the whole thing through,

    ピックアップトラックから降ろされて

  • is bloody bodies being taken out of a pickup truck

    橋から投げ落とされる場面です

  • and thrown off a bridge.

    ムスリム同胞団のメンバーが

  • The allegations were that these guys were Muslim Brotherhood

    シリア軍兵士の死体を 捨てる所とされています

  • and they were throwing Syrian Army officers' bodies

    でも男達は 呪いや 冒涜の言葉を言っており

  • off the bridge, and they were cursing and using blasphemous language,

    本当は何者なのか

  • and there were lots of counterclaims about who they were,

    ビデオの説明通りなのかは 意見が分かれます

  • and whether or not they were what the video said it was.

    そこでTwitterでやり取りしていた ―

  • So we talked to some sources in Hama who we had been

    ハマーにいる人達に この件を尋ねました

  • back and forth with on Twitter, and we asked them about this,

    注目したのは橋です 特定できるかも知れません

  • and the bridge was interesting to us because it was something we could identify.

    3つの情報源の 証言はバラバラでした

  • Three different sources said three different things about the bridge.

    ある協力者は「橋はない」

  • They said, one, the bridge doesn't exist.

    別の協力者は「橋はあるが ハマーではない」

  • Another one said the bridge does exist, but it's not in Hama. It's somewhere else.

    3人目は「橋はあると思う

  • And the third one said, "I think the bridge does exist,

    でも上流のダムが閉鎖しており

  • but the dam upstream of the bridge was closed,

    川に水がないはずで 映像と一致しない」

  • so the river should actually have been dry, so this doesn't make sense."

    最後の証言がヒントになりました

  • So that was the only one that gave us a clue.

    手がかりを探して

  • We looked through the video for other clues.

    ビデオを見ると 特徴のある 手すりに気づきました

  • We saw the distinctive railings, which we could use.

    歩道上の影が 南へ伸びているので

  • We looked at the curbs. The curbs were throwing shadows south,

    橋は東西方向にかかっています

  • so we could tell the bridge was running east-west across the river.

    歩道は白と黒に塗られています

  • It had black-and-white curbs.

    川面を見ると

  • As we looked at the river itself, you could see there's

    西側にコンクリート護岸 血の流れが見えます

  • a concrete stone on the west side. There's a cloud of blood.

    つまり川が南から北へ

  • That's blood in the river. So the river is flowing

    流れているのです

  • south to north. That's what that tells me.

    橋から向こうを見ると

  • And also, as you look away from the bridge,

    土手に削られた部分があり

  • there's a divot on the left-hand side of the bank,

    川幅が狭まっています

  • and the river narrows.

    次にGoogle Mapsで

  • So onto Google Maps we go, and we start

    橋を全部見ていきました

  • looking through literally every single bridge.

    先ほどのダムから下流に向かって

  • We go to the dam that we talked about, we start just

    橋がある場所を すべて確認し

  • literally going through every time that road crosses the river,

    該当しないものを外しました

  • crossing off the bridges that don't match.

    探すのは東西にかかる橋です