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  • Antarctica! Home to the South Poles, penguins, and about 5,000 people during the summers.


  • But less than 1,000 during the ever-dark winter.


  • No one lives on the continent permanently.


  • So, who owns Antarctica?


  • Most stuff outside national borders: the sea floor, the moon, really all of space, is the Common Heritage of Mankind.

    国境エリアを超えて存在する海底や月、ハッキリ言って宇宙全体は 人類の共同遺産となっています。

  • It belongs to none of us, and all of us, held in trust for future generations.


  • Which is nice, if perhaps a bit presumptive, to say that the entire Universe is ours.


  • And maybe someone will have something to say about that eventually.


  • Story for another time.


  • But still, well done humanity!


  • Except... it's never that simple.


  • Because the paperwork on Antarctica sort of says "Common Heritage of Mankind", but it doesn't go all in.


  • Here's why: explorers started landing in Antarctica in about the 1800's, planting flags and making claims.


  • But these claims were a bit hollow, because, on the Civilization tech tree, Antarctica wasn't colonizable.

    その宣言はなんとも形式だけのものでした。なぜなら、文明発達の歴史における植民地時代には 南極大陸は植民地化が不可能だったからです。

  • Nonetheless, like Monopoly, the optimal colonial strategy is "Claim everything you land on".


  • In the early 1900's, the UK toyed with claiming "all" of Antarctica, before scaling back her ambitions to just the coastal parts she had explored to the South Pole.

    1900年代初期、イギリスは南極大陸全ての領地宣言を試みましたが、後にその大きな野心を抑えて、 南極点到達探検の際に通過した海岸沿いの一部だけを領地としました。

  • France also claimed coastal explorations to the Pole, followed by Norway, followed by the Nazis.


  • Mid century, Argentina and Chile claimed slices overlapping with the UK, who they figured was rather too busy at the time to care, but later she and her now independent colonies totally did.

    1900年代中頃になると、アルゼンチンとチリがイギリスと重なる範囲の領地宣言をしましたが、その時点ではイギリスは細かい事を気にするヒマの無いほど他の事で忙しいと目論んでのことでしたが、 後にイギリスならびに独立した植民地諸国がしっかりと本腰を入れて関わるようになってきたのです。

  • This left the Antarctica a mess of competing claims, at a bad time to have large territorial disputes.


  • Complicating things, the United States and the Soviet Union gave themselves the right to make a claim on Antarctica, not now, but maybe later.


  • Given this, quite remarkably, in 1959, the US, and USSR, and ten other countries, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and the UK, made a treaty to ease the tensions, saying that on Antarctica, there would be no military, no mining, and no nuclear exploding.


  • The Antarctican paperwork is the first Cold War disarmament treaty, and set aside the continent for science and nature.


  • By the way, because it's a nature preserve, there's a rule about garbage, "Leave nothing behind".


  • Nothing.


  • Travel to Antarctica in the Summer, and you'll fly back with your poo in the Winter.


  • So, this looks pretty great, what's the problem with the line about common heritage?


  • Well, no one actually gave up their claims on Antarctica, because the only way to get everyone to sign was to include this clause, which sidesteps the issue.

    それは条約締結を実現させるためにはこの条項を盛り込むことが不可欠だったわけで、根本的な問題自体は避けて通る形を取っているからです。 基本的には、各国とも南極大陸は人類の共同遺産「かのような」意識で臨み、

  • Basically saying countries will act "as though" Antarctica is the Common Heritage of Mankind, and "as though" they have no claims, but they aren't legally "for realsies" giving up anything -which is why maps of Antarctica often include the current state of claim wedges.

    どの国も領土宣言はしていない「かのような」対処をするということが定められています。しかし、法律上「本気で」権利を放棄しようとする国は無いわけで、 そのため、南極大陸の地図には現在の領土宣言状況を示す線が入っている場合も多くあります。 ちなみに、この空白箇所はどこも領土宣言していないので、

  • This blank spot, by the way, is nobody's, leaving it the largest territory unclaimed on earth by any nation, so far, anyway.

    地球上でどの国も領土権利を宣言していない最大の地域となっています。まあ、かなり離れたところにありますからね。 さて、植民地時代とは違って、

  • Now, unlike the colonial days, countries have the tech to build permanently staffed bases on Antarctica, and it just so happens that countries build their bases in their own claims, leaving no clear answer to this question.

    各国とも、南極大陸に常時人員を配置しておくためのベースキャンプを建設するだけの技術を持ち合わせており、偶然かどうか、それぞれのベースは自国が領土宣言をした土地に建てられていて、 この問題解決への道のりをより不透明なものとしています。 条約によると、南極大陸は全ての国に属することになっていますが、

  • According to the Treaty, Antarctica belongs to everyone, but the Treaty itself has an intentional hole.


  • So Antarctica exists in this quantum state where the claims are real and unreal.


  • Some countries build within their "borders", and some countries without claims, like China, build their bases on the continent wherever, because it belongs to everyone, right guys?

    中国の様に領土宣言をしていない国は、極大陸内のどこでも好きなところにベースを建設するケースもあります。 だって、南極はみんなのもの、ですからね? こういった宣言は、2040年に

  • These claims don't really matter, until they do in the 2040's, when the mining ban comes up for review.

    採掘禁止について見直しが行われるまでは特に大きな意味は持ちません。 まあ、南極には多くの石油が埋蔵されている可能性はあるんですけどね。

  • Oh, and there's possibly a lot of oil in Antarctica, not to mention 70% of the earth's fresh water, which could be the more valuable resource in the future.

    全世界の飲み水の70%もこの地域にありますから、将来的に資源価値は上昇する可能性はあります。 アメリカだとかソ連…じゃなくてロシアが

  • The US and the Soviet... er... Russia, might just yet dust off those "One-free-claim-because-I-say-so" tickets.


  • But for now Antarctica is ,as the Treaty intended, a continental nature reserve, and scientific research haven.

    大陸規模で自然保護地域となっており、科学調査の楽園とも言えるでしょう。Squarespace は素敵なウェブサイトブログを作る上で最も簡単に使えるツールで、

Antarctica! Home to the South Poles, penguins, and about 5,000 people during the summers.


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