字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Linguists estimate 6,000-7,000 languages are spoken worldwide, and so that sounds like a tremendous amount of languages, tremendous linguistic diversity, but what that actually means is that many, many languages have few numbers of speakers, and in fact in many countries, as many as 90% or more of the people in that country speak a language at home other than the national or official language of that country. 30 languages including English, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, include more than 4 billion people speaking the language so if there's 7 billion people worldwide, and 4 billion people speak 30 languages, that doesn't leave a lot of speakers left for the remaining 6,970 languages. And in fact, more than half of the world's languages are in critical situations for their survival. These languages are endangered. UNESCO has a series of criteria that outline how a language is doing in terms of its survival. And for these languages, if there's no children in the home learning the language, if there are only elderly speakers remaining, those languages are in severely threatened states. It maybe they're just vulnerable, and in a few years, a few decades, the speakers will go, but many languages are in a critically endangered situation which means their very survival is threatened. In fact, every continent in our global world has an endangered language. Endangered languages are found worldwide, So, these critically endangered languages are on every continent, but tiny languages are fighting back for their survival. In Europe, the example of Irish is an amazing story, and inspiring story of language revitalization and reclamation. In the 19th century, as speakers started to realize there were fewer and fewer Irish speakers and English was taking over, they started to engage in efforts in order to see that their languages survived. In the Gaeltacht, those are the parts of Ireland where the most number of speakers are found, the most dense areas of Irish Gaelic speakers. In the 20th century, we saw things like radio, Irish Gaelic radio emerged, and so new media offered places for speakers to regenerate and revive. The indigenous language, Maori, spoken in New Zealand, is the New Zealand indigenous language, and that language has had a very vary lots of challenges that it's faced. In the 1970s, the communities started to realize that the survival of the language was threatened, and so what happened in the 1980s is that Maori community members sought to recreate that environment where language is best learnt : in the home. In the home, for child rearing where parents, and grandparents, and children engage in daily activities, immersed in their language. This is the place where children best learn the language. And so in the 1980s, the Maori created "language nests," trying to recreate that environment which was not possible at that time because the parent generation, the childbearing generation, did not speak the language, and as a consequence, the Maori language nest model has taken over in many communities worldwide, seeking to revive and revitalize their language use that model. Closer to home in Arlington, Texas, only three hours down the road in Ada, Oklahoma is the Chickasaw Language Revitalization Program. And this program is vigorously engaged in making sure its language survives into the next generation. Chickasaw, at best, has 60 to 65 speakers of the Chickasaw language, and non of them are under the age of 60. You can see that's a challenging situation for the Chickasaw tribal members. But what the Chickasaw Language Program does is they create lots of opportunities for their citizens to engage and partake in the language. For example, playing cards with the language allow the grandparents, parents, and children to engage in games, and have the language there. If we look to Australia where there's tremendous diversity in Aboriginal languages, we find an inspiring example of a sleeping language being reawakened. Jack Buckskin, a young Kaurna man has been instrumental in bringing his language back. With the help of linguist Rob Amery, and archival materials in the language, Jack Buckskin learnt his language, he teaches his language, and now his little girl speaks the language which she learned in the home. So once again, thanks to Jack Buckskin and his efforts, and efforts of others around him; what we see is the Kaurna language again spoken by children. It's not just about language. Tremendous amounts of information is stored and encoded in language : culture, traditions, life ways, food, knowledge about the seasons, climate, plants, and animals. In fact, if we stay in Australia, there's a significant oral tradition among a number of different aboriginal people that there was a time when the sea level was low, and what is now island was then connected land where people could roam. But then the sea levels rose and life changed, and this is something that's found in many aboriginal traditions:the story of the sea level change. And if fact, there's parallels in western science for climate change that 6,000-7,000 years ago the water levels rose. The Gwich'in in Alaska are in a part of the world with Arctic climates, and its climate in this environment is rapidly changing. One of the things that they have lived on that's been essential to their survival is the caribou. The caribou plays a strong role in tradition subsistence, and as the weather is changing, as the land is changing, the Gwich'in are rapidly engaged in vigorously documenting what they know about the caribou. They have a rich vocabulary for the parts and the anatomy of the caribou. Elders have amazing amounts of traditional knowledge about how the caribou was hunted, ceremonies involved the caribou so this is a centre of the life ways of the Gwich'in, and they're working to make sure that knowledge is there for future generations, and that knowledge is tied to the language. But it's not just Alaska, if we look to the Tohono O'odham in the Sonoran Desert, what we see is a people vigorously engaged in traditional food ways,involved in plant activities. For example, the harvest of the Bahidaj, the red ripe fruit of the Haashan, of the Saguaro cactus. People still harvest that fruit and that fruit's harvest in June is usually a signal that the rains are coming, it's an integral part of the calendar of the Tohono O'odham life and traditions. Tohono O'odham community action is a non-profit, it's engaged in the language and cultural revitalization, and making sure these traditional ways of harvesting plants, of planting foods are kept alive. Ceremonies, traditional games it's all about health and life ways, and finding that wholeness that's involved in the traditional foods, in the traditional activities, in the traditional sports. The O'odham have some of the highest IBD rates in the world and reclaiming that cultural connection can allow them to have a healthier path to the future. It's not just about history, it's about technology, the Cherokee leaders in digital technology with language. So right now, thanks to localisation projects the Cherokee Language Program has with Microsoft, Apple, and Google, you can text on your iPhone in Cherokee. The Cherokee have long been leaders in digital language technology: when Sequoyah invented the writing system, the Cherokee syllabary in the 1800s, what you soon saw were printing presses creating a large literature in the Cherokee language, and a large written tradition. When the Cherokee were forced out of their traditional lands in the south-east into what was then Indian territory and became Oklahoma, one of the things that was quick to happen was the re-emergence of the printing presses, and the re-emergence of a printed Cherokee literature. (voice-over in Cherokee) The little, green lizard sat on a tree limb. The little green lizard sat on a tree limb and he would change colours, green and red. While he sat on the tree limb, he changed colours. The little lizard was in the grass and his two lizard friends came along, and they went into the sand. At best, 200 speakers by the last count, but probably far fewer. Most of the speakers are in their late 50s or older. We had Janelle Batis, a speaker in her 30s who was able to speak the language because her parents did not allow them to speak English in the home. We had her here on the UT Arlington campus, and were able to use technology to help create materials that can be used to teach the language, and that have been used in culture in language camps hosted by the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Technology also allows people to cross the digital divide, cross the world, on February 21st, we celebrate International Mother Language Day, a holiday dedicated by UNESCO in honour of Bangla activists who in 1952, died to get their language recognized with official status. Would you die for your language? They did. They did. So now, Rising Voices and Global Voices lead a global social media campaign to celebrate linguistic diversity, and tweet in your mother language.