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  • When I got my current job, I was given a good piece of advice,

    その昔 毎日政治家と話す機会があり

  • which was to interview three politicians every day.

    大変勉強になりました

  • And from that much contact with politicians,

    そうした経験を通して

  • I can tell you they're all emotional freaks of one sort or another.

    感情面で変人だ と感じました

  • They have what I called "logorrhea dementia,"

    おしゃべり症候群です

  • which is they talk so much they drive themselves insane.

    しゃべり過ぎて 頭が変になってます

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • But what they do have is incredible social skills.

    しかし彼らは本当に社交術に長けてます

  • When you meet them, they lock into you,

    会ったとたんガチっとつかまえて

  • they look you in the eye,

    目を見て話をして

  • they invade your personal space,

    後頭部をさすりながら

  • they massage the back of your head.

    心の隙間に入り込みます

  • I had dinner with a Republican senator several months ago

    ある議員と夕食の機会がありまして

  • who kept his hand on my inner thigh

    食事の間 ずっと私の内ももに

  • throughout the whole meal -- squeezing it.

    手を入れてギューっとされましたよ

  • I once -- this was years ago --

    かなり前ですが

  • I saw Ted Kennedy and Dan Quayle meet in the well of the Senate.

    ある議員をみかけました

  • And they were friends, and they hugged each other

    彼らは ハグをして

  • and they were laughing, and their faces were like this far apart.

    笑いながら こんな近くで話すんです

  • And they were moving and grinding

    お互いの両腕を上へ下へと

  • and moving their arms up and down each other.

    さすり合うんです

  • And I was like, "Get a room. I don't want to see this."

    「他でやってくれ!」

  • But they have those social skills.

    とにかく社交術に長けてます

  • Another case:

    ほかには

  • Last election cycle,

    前回の選挙の時

  • I was following Mitt Romney around New Hampshire,

    ミット・ロムニーを取材してました

  • and he was campaigning with his five perfect sons:

    5人の息子と選挙を活動をしてました

  • Bip, Chip, Rip, Zip, Lip and Dip.

    ビップ チップ リップとその他たくさん

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And he's going into a diner.

    ダイナーに入って

  • And he goes into the diner, introduces himself to a family

    ある家族に自己紹介しました

  • and says, "What village are you from in New Hampshire?"

    「どちらから?」と聞き

  • And then he describes the home he owned in their village.

    「そこには自宅があるんですよ!」

  • And so he goes around the room,

    店じゅうでそうやって

  • and then as he's leaving the diner,

    ダイナーから出ていきました

  • he first-names almost everybody he's just met.

    初対面の人たちをファーストネームで呼んでました

  • I was like, "Okay, that's social skill."

    「これこそ社交術」

  • But the paradox is,

    変なのは

  • when a lot of these people slip into the policy-making mode,

    政策を作る段階になると

  • that social awareness vanishes

    人間味がふっとんで

  • and they start talking like accountants.

    急に会計士にみたいになることです

  • So in the course of my career,

    キャリアを通じて

  • I have covered a series of failures.

    いくつもの失敗を取材してきました

  • We sent economists in the Soviet Union

    アメリカはソ連の民営化のため

  • with privatization plans when it broke up,

    エコノミストを送り込み 失敗

  • and what they really lacked was social trust.

    必要だったのは信頼関係でした

  • We invaded Iraq with a military

    アメリカは文化的精神的な

  • oblivious to the cultural and psychological realities.

    現実を無視してイラクに軍事介入

  • We had a financial regulatory regime

    トレーダーは

  • based on the assumptions

    バカはしないだろう

  • that traders were rational creatures

    という前提の規制を

  • who wouldn't do anything stupid.

    設けていました

  • For 30 years, I've been covering school reform

    30年間 教育改革を取材してきました

  • and we've basically reorganized the bureaucratic boxes --

    改革とは役所仕事の整理のことです

  • charters, private schools, vouchers --

    許可制度 私立学校 証明書などなど

  • but we've had disappointing results year after year.

    何年にも渡って結果は散々です

  • And the fact is, people learn from people they love.

    私たちは好きな人から学びます

  • And if you're not talking about the individual relationship

    先生と生徒のつながりに

  • between a teacher and a student,

    触れていなければ 現実的な

  • you're not talking about that reality.

    話をしていません

  • But that reality is expunged

    こうした現実は政策を作る

  • from our policy-making process.

    段階で消えてなくなります

  • And so that's led to a question for me:

    一つの疑問は

  • Why are the most socially-attuned people on earth

    人情味溢れる人たちが 政策を作る

  • completely dehumanized

    段階に入ると なぜ

  • when they think about policy?

    人間味がなくなるのか?

  • And I came to the conclusion,

    私の結論はもっと

  • this is a symptom of a larger problem.

    大きな問題のサインでした

  • That, for centuries, we've inherited a view of human nature

    長年 人間の本質を捉えるとき

  • based on the notion

    理性と感情という

  • that we're divided selves,

    二つの領域が存在し

  • that reason is separated from the emotions

    これらは切り離されていると考えられ

  • and that society progresses

    社会は感情を抑制することで

  • to the extent that reason can suppress the passions.

    発展してきたと考えられてきました

  • And it's led to a view of human nature

    本質的に人間は理性的で

  • that we're rational individuals

    目標に対し 一直線に

  • who respond in straightforward ways to incentives,

    向かうものだと考えています

  • and it's led to ways of seeing the world

    人間の行動を測る時

  • where people try to use the assumptions of physics

    物理学の世界と同じような

  • to measure how human behavior is.

    前提を持ち出します

  • And it's produced a great amputation,

    こうして人間の本質の大前提が

  • a shallow view of human nature.

    とても浅はかになりました

  • We're really good at talking about material things,

    物質的なことはよく話せますが

  • but we're really bad at talking about emotions.

    感情についてはまるっきりダメ

  • We're really good at talking about skills

    スキルや安全

  • and safety and health;

    健康については話せますが

  • we're really bad at talking about character.

    人の性格については まるっきりダメです

  • Alasdair MacIntyre, the famous philosopher,

    アラスデア・マッキンタイア曰く

  • said that, "We have the concepts of the ancient morality

    「古代の倫理観や美徳 名誉や美点について

  • of virtue, honor, goodness,

    知ってはいるが もはや

  • but we no longer have a system

    それらと自分たちを結びつける

  • by which to connect them."

    手立てを失ってしまった」

  • And so this has led to a shallow path in politics,

    浅はかな政策をとるようになり

  • but also in a whole range of human endeavors.

    人間の営み全体までも浅はかなものになりました

  • You can see it in the way we raise our young kids.

    子育てでも明らかです

  • You go to an elementary school at three in the afternoon

    午後3時に小学校に行くと重そうなバックパックを

  • and you watch the kids come out,

    背負った子供たちが

  • and they're wearing these 80-pound backpacks.

    飛び出してきます 風が吹けばまるで

  • If the wind blows them over, they're like beetles stuck there on the ground.

    カブトムシが地面で踏ん張ってるよう

  • You see these cars that drive up --

    お迎えの車はサーブか

  • usually it's Saabs and Audis and Volvos,

    アウディ はたまたボルボです

  • because in certain neighborhoods it's socially acceptable to have a luxury car,

    ある地域では高級車を乗りまわしてもOKですから

  • so long as it comes from a country hostile to U.S. foreign policy --

    そのメーカーがアメリカの外交政策に反対してれば

  • that's fine.

    まあいいでしょう

  • They get picked up by these creatures I've called uber-moms,

    お迎えはスーパーママです

  • who are highly successful career women

    キャリアで成功を収めた人たちで

  • who have taken time off to make sure all their kids get into Harvard.

    子供をハーバードへ進学させようとしています

  • And you can usually tell the uber-moms

    スーパーママは一目瞭然

  • because they actually weigh less than their own children.

    だって子供よりも軽いんですから

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • So at the moment of conception,

    妊娠してからすぐに

  • they're doing little butt exercises.

    おしりの運動をして

  • Babies flop out,

    赤ちゃんが生まれたとたん

  • they're flashing Mandarin flashcards at the things.

    中国語のお勉強をはじめます

  • Driving them home, and they want them to be enlightened,

    放課後は子供を啓蒙するため

  • so they take them to Ben & Jerry's ice cream company

    独自の外交政策の

  • with its own foreign policy.

    ベン & ジェリーアイスクリームへ

  • In one of my books,

    このアイス屋が

  • I joke that Ben & Jerry's should make a pacifist toothpaste --

    非暴力主義の歯磨き粉で大ヒット間違いなし

  • doesn't kill germs, just asks them to leave.

    バイ菌を殺さず

  • It would be a big seller.

    ただ どっかにいってもらうってね

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And they go to Whole Foods to get their baby formula,

    ホールフーズで粉ミルクのお買い物

  • and Whole Foods is one of those progressive grocery stores

    ここは進んだ食料品店で

  • where all the cashiers look like they're on loan from Amnesty International.

    従業員はまるで人権団体の職員みたい

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • They buy these seaweed-based snacks there

    海藻のお菓子を買います

  • called Veggie Booty with Kale,

    「ケール入りべジー・ブーティー」

  • which is for kids who come home and say,

    子供たちは言います

  • "Mom, mom, I want a snack that'll help prevent colon-rectal cancer."

    「ママ 大腸ガンに効くあのお菓子が食べたいよう」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And so the kids are raised in a certain way,

    子供はそんな風に育てられ

  • jumping through achievement hoops of the things we can measure --

    測れる程度の成功を次々と収めます

  • SAT prep, oboe, soccer practice.

    テスト準備 オーボエ サッカーの練習

  • They get into competitive colleges, they get good jobs,

    一流大学に入り 一流企業に就職して

  • and sometimes they make a success of themselves

    何人かは上っ面での成功を

  • in a superficial manner, and they make a ton of money.

    収めてがっぽり稼ぐ

  • And sometimes you can see them at vacation places

    そんな彼らを時々

  • like Jackson Hole or Aspen.

    リゾート地で見かけます

  • And they've become elegant and slender --

    エレガントでスレンダー

  • they don't really have thighs;

    太ももなんてないんです

  • they just have one elegant calve on top of another.

    ふくらはぎの上にふくらはぎがのってるだけ

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • They have kids of their own,

    親になり

  • and they've achieved a genetic miracle by marrying beautiful people,

    美人と結婚して遺伝の奇跡を成し遂げます

  • so their grandmoms look like Gertrude Stein,

    おばあちゃんはガートルード・スタインで

  • their daughters looks like Halle Berry -- I don't know how they've done that.

    娘はまるでハル・ベリー ホントどうなってるんでしょう?

  • They get there and they realize

    そうこうしているうちに

  • it's fashionable now to have dogs a third as tall as your ceiling heights.

    でっかい犬を飼うのが流行なので

  • So they've got these furry 160-pound dogs --

    70kgのまるで恐竜みたいな

  • all look like velociraptors,

    ワンちゃんを飼います

  • all named after Jane Austen characters.

    名前はジェーン・オースティンのキャラから

  • And then when they get old, they haven't really developed a philosophy of life,

    歳をとっても人生の哲学もなく

  • but they've decided, "I've been successful at everything;

    「こんなに多くのことで成功したんだから

  • I'm just not going to die."

    このまま死ぬわけにはいかない」

  • And so they hire personal trainers;

    パーソナルトレーナーを雇い

  • they're popping Cialis like breath mints.

    精力剤をガボガボ飲む

  • You see them on the mountains up there.

    雪山で見かけるでしょ

  • They're cross-country skiing up the mountain

    厳しい表情で山を

  • with these grim expressions

    せっせと登る彼らを

  • that make Dick Cheney look like Jerry Lewis.

    あれじゃ ディック・チェイニーも顔負け

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And as they whiz by you,

    彼らが横を通り過ぎる時

  • it's like being passed by a little iron Raisinet

    その様子はまるで

  • going up the hill.

    鉄のレーズン

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • And so this is part of what life is,

    とある人生をご紹介しました

  • but it's not all of what life is.

    でも人生はこれだけじゃありません

  • And over the past few years,

    過去数年にわたってより深く

  • I think we've been given a deeper view of human nature

    人間の本質 私たちは一体何者なのか?

  • and a deeper view of who we are.

    についてヒントを得てきました

  • And it's not based on theology or philosophy,

    神学や哲学からではなく

  • it's in the study of the mind,

    心についての研究から

  • across all these spheres of research,

    神経科学 認知科学

  • from neuroscience to the cognitive scientists,

    行動経済学 心理学 社会学

  • behavioral economists, psychologists,

    さまざまな分野にわたる

  • sociology,

    リサーチは

  • we're developing a revolution in consciousness.

    意識革命をおこしてきました

  • And when you synthesize it all,

    これらを統合したとき

  • it's giving us a new view of human nature.

    新しい人間の本質が見えてきます

  • And far from being a coldly materialistic view of nature,

    人間味があり 真新しく魅力的な

  • it's a new humanism, it's a new enchantment.

    新しいヒューマニズム

  • And I think when you synthesize this research,

    リサーチを統合するときに

  • you start with three key insights.

    3つの洞察がキーとなります

  • The first insight is

    最初の洞察は

  • that while the conscious mind writes the autobiography of our species,

    人間のほとんどの行動は無意識が

  • the unconscious mind does most of the work.

    導いているということです

  • And so one way to formulate that is

    こういう言い方もできます

  • the human mind can take in millions of pieces of information a minute,

    心は莫大な情報を一瞬で受け止めますが

  • of which it can be consciously aware of about 40.

    意識できるのはわずかです その結果

  • And this leads to oddities.

    おかしなことがおこります

  • One of my favorite is that people named Dennis

    デニスという名前の人は

  • are disproportionately likely to become dentists,

    なぜかデンティスト(歯医者)になりがち

  • people named Lawrence become lawyers,

    ローレンスはローヤー(弁護士)に

  • because unconsciously we gravitate toward things

    無意識に似ている音に

  • that sound familiar,

    引き寄せられてるのです

  • which is why I named my daughter President of the United States Brooks.

    なので 私の娘は「合衆国大統領ブルックス」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Another finding is that the unconscious,

    もう一つの発見は無意識というのは

  • far from being dumb and sexualized,

    バカで本能的なものではなく

  • is actually quite smart.

    実際はかなり賢い

  • So one of the most cognitively demanding things we do is buy furniture.

    家具の購入は本当に決断が要ります

  • It's really hard to imagine a sofa, how it's going to look in your house.

    自宅にぴったりのソファ選びは難しい

  • And the way you should do that

    こうするといいです

  • is study the furniture,

    家具をよく見て

  • let it marinate in your mind, distract yourself,

    心に留め 一度気分転換をします

  • and then a few days later, go with your gut,

    数日後 直感で決めてしまうのです

  • because unconsciously you've figured it out.

    無意識がはたらきます

  • The second insight

    二つ目の洞察は

  • is that emotions are at the center of our thinking.

    思考の中心に感情があるということです

  • People with strokes and lesions

    感情を司る脳の部分に

  • in the emotion-processing parts of the brain

    障害がある人が天才ということは

  • are not super smart,

    まずありません

  • they're actually sometimes quite helpless.

    お手上げ状態の場合もあります

  • And the "giant" in the field is in the room tonight

    この分野の大御所である

  • and is speaking tomorrow morning -- Antonio Damasio.

    アントニオ・ダマジオが会場にいます

  • And one of the things he's really shown us

    彼が紹介するのは感情は

  • is that emotions are not separate from reason,

    理由付けから切り離されたものではなく

  • but they are the foundation of reason

    理由付けのベースとなるということです

  • because they tell us what to value.

    感情こそが何が大事かを決めるのです

  • And so reading and educating your emotions

    自身の感情を読み そして

  • is one of the central activities of wisdom.

    育てていくことが 知識活動の核となります

  • Now I'm a middle-aged guy.

    私は中年で感情について

  • I'm not exactly comfortable with emotions.

    あまり得意でありません

  • One of my favorite brain stories described these middle-aged guys.

    お気に入りの話に中年男性のグループが

  • They put them into a brain scan machine --

    脳のスキャン装置にかけられる話があります

  • this is apocryphal by the way, but I don't care --

    ホントかウソかは知りませんが

  • and they had them watch a horror movie,

    まずホラー映画を見せられたあと

  • and then they had them describe their feelings toward their wives.

    奥さんへの感情を話させます

  • And the brain scans were identical in both activities.

    スキャン結果はどちらも同じでした

  • It was just sheer terror.

    ホントどちらも恐ろしい

  • So me talking about emotion

    私が感情について話すのは

  • is like Gandhi talking about gluttony,

    ガンジーが大食いについて

  • but it is the central organizing process

    話すのと同じです とにかく感情が

  • of the way we think.

    私たちの思考の中心です

  • It tells us what to imprint.

    心に刻むべきものを決定します

  • The brain is the record of the feelings of a life.

    脳は感情の記録装置なのです

  • And the third insight

    三番目の洞察は

  • is that we're not primarily self-contained individuals.

    人間は元来 自己完結した存在ではなく

  • We're social animals, not rational animals.

    社会的動物で合理的ではありません

  • We emerge out of relationships,

    私たちの存在は人間関係から

  • and we are deeply interpenetrated, one with another.

    浮き彫りになりお互いに深くつながっています

  • And so when we see another person,

    他の人を見るとき

  • we reenact in our own minds

    心の中で その人の心を

  • what we see in their minds.

    再現しているのです

  • When we watch a car chase in a movie,

    カーチェイスのシーンを見ると

  • it's almost as if we are subtly having a car chase.

    カーチェイスをしているような気になり

  • When we watch pornography,

    ポルノを見てると