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  • A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning

  • of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added

  • to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a

  • prefix is also called a preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it

  • is affixed. Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional, changing the syntactic

  • category, or derivational, changing either the lexical category or the semantic meaning.

  • In English, there are no inflectional prefixes. Prefixes, like all other affixes, are bound

  • morphemes. The word prefix is itself made up of the stem fix, and the prefix pre-, both

  • of which are derived from Latin roots.

  • In English List of English derivational prefixes

  • In English, a fairly comprehensive list, although not exhaustive, is the following. Depending

  • on precisely how one defines a derivational prefix, some of the neoclassical combining

  • forms may or may not qualify for inclusion in such a list. This list takes the broad

  • view that acro- and auto- count as English derivational prefixes because they function

  • the same way that prefixes such as over- and self- do.

  • As for numeral prefixes, only the most common members of that class are included here. There

  • is a large separate table covering them all at Numeral prefix > Table of number prefixes

  • in English. Hyphenation

  • The choice between hyphenation or solid styling for prefixes in English is covered at Hyphen

  • > Prefixes and suffixes. In other languages

  • Japanese The most commonly used prefix in Japanese,

  • お o-, is used as part of the honorific system of speech. It is a marker for politeness,

  • showing respect for the person or thing it is affixed to.

  • Bantu languages In the Bantu languages of Africa, which are

  • agglutinating, the noun class is conveyed through prefixes, which is declined and agrees

  • with all of its arguments accordingly. Example from Ganda

  • The one, old, fat farmer goes.

  • Navajo Verbs in the Navajo language are formed with

  • a stem and multiple affixes. For example, each verb requires one of four non-syllabic

  • prefixes to create a verb theme. Sunwar

  • In the language of the Sunuwar people of Eastern Nepal, the prefix ma- म is used to create

  • negative verbs. It is the only verbal prefix in the language.

  • Bad child!

  • Russian As a part of the formation of nouns, prefixes

  • are less common in Russian than suffixes, but alter the meaning of a word.

  • German In German, derivatives formed with prefixes

  • may be classified in two categories: those used with substantives and adjectives, and

  • those used with verbs. For derivative substantives and adjectives, only two prefixes are still

  • in use as of 1970: un-, which expresses negation, and ur-, which means "original, primitive"

  • in substantives, and has an emphatic function in adjectives. ge- expresses union or togetherness.

  • On the other hand, verbal prefixes are still much in use: be-, er-, ent-, ge-, ver-, zer-,

  • and miß-. be- expresses strengthening or generalization. ent- expresses negation. ge-

  • indicates the completion of an action, and that's why its most common use has become

  • the forming of the past participle of verbs; ver- has an emphatic function, or it is used

  • to turn a substantive or an adjective into a verb. In some cases, the prefix particle

  • ent- can be considered the opposite of particle be-, while er- can be considered the opposite

  • of ver-. The prefix er- usually indicates the successful

  • completion of an action, and sometimes the conclusion means death. With fewer verbs,

  • it indicates the beginning of and action. The prefix er- is also used to form verbs

  • from adjectives. See also

  • Affix Suffix

  • Bound morpheme English prefixes

  • List of Greek and Latin roots in English Prefixthe mathematical notion in formal

  • language theory References

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning

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接頭辞 (Prefix)

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