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  • Welcome to this lesson

  • just a warning

  • this lesson is going to be a little academic

  • It is intended for high intermediate

  • to advanced students

  • This lesson will give you the tools you need

  • to take 2000 words

  • and turn the into more than 15 000 words

  • Trust me

  • I did it in university

  • Actually, this is the first in a series of lessons

  • in which you will learn how to create new words

  • and understand words that you have never seen before

  • After this lesson

  • You will know how to describe the structure

  • of a word

  • and you will have the vocabulary that you need

  • to take yours to the next level

  • we will cover the terms

  • 'morpheme'

  • 'root'

  • 'affix'

  • 'prefix'

  • 'suffix'

  • 'grammatical suffix'

  • 'derivational suffix'

  • and 'word family'

  • The first word we'll cover

  • is morpheme

  • This is a word

  • that is used in linguistics

  • It is used to describe

  • a group of sounds that is meaningful

  • For example,

  • The word 'morpheme' has two morphemes in it

  • 'morph-' and '-eme'

  • 'morph-' means shape

  • and '-eme' means meaningful

  • We know that they are separate

  • meaningful units

  • because they can be added to different words

  • while having the same meaning

  • For example, 'morph-' is used in the words

  • 'polymorph'

  • an organism that can take many forms

  • 'metamorphosis'

  • the process of changing form or shape

  • 'morphology'

  • the study of morphemes

  • 'morph'

  • this is a verb that means to change shape

  • 'morphogenesis'

  • the origin

  • and development of biological forms

  • etcetera

  • The list goes one

  • '-eme' is a technical is a technical morpheme

  • it is only used in linguistics

  • One of the words that uses it is 'phoneme'

  • 'phone-' means sound

  • and '-eme' means meaningful

  • So a phoneme is a meaningful sound

  • in a language

  • all words are made of morphemes

  • English uses two types of morphemes

  • Roots and affixes

  • roots and affixes

  • Roots can exist independently

  • They do not need to be added to anything else

  • to be used in a sentence

  • For example, 'eat'

  • If you try to separate 'ea' or 't'

  • They have no meaning on their own

  • Therefore, 'eat' is a root

  • There are two types of affixes

  • prefixes

  • and suffixes

  • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a root

  • a suffix is added to the end

  • It is possible to have several affixes added to one root

  • For example, the latin root 'civ'

  • or 'civis-'

  • means 'citizen', a person who is a member of a state

  • many affixes can be added onto it

  • For example, '-il'

  • This gives us the word 'civil'

  • it has three meanings

  • One is belonging to the affairs of a people of a state

  • For example, 'civil law'

  • These are the laws that govern citizens

  • as opposed to members of the military

  • it can also mean polite

  • if we add the prefix 'un-'

  • to create the word 'uncivil'

  • This means not polite

  • His behavior was truly uncivil

  • with the word civil you could add the suffix '-ize'

  • meaning to make or become

  • and create the word civilize

  • which means to make more culturally advanced

  • adding the suffix '-ed' to this

  • creates the word 'civilized'

  • means being in a culturally advanced state

  • 'uncivilized' means not being culturally advanced

  • and it goes on, we could create many more words

  • the point is that many roots can take many affixes

  • and suffixes can be added to other suffixes

  • to create even more words

  • Let's slow down for a minute

  • There are actually two kinds of suffixes

  • Grammatical and derivational

  • First, we'll look at grammatical suffixes

  • Grammatical suffixes do not change the class of a word

  • So they will not change a verb

  • to an adjective or a verb to a noun

  • They simply add grammatical information

  • a few examples are...

  • the plural '-s'

  • one banana

  • two bananas

  • the possessive '-'s'

  • John's banana's

  • the third person '-s'

  • John eats banans

  • These are not all of the grammatical suffixes

  • but I hope it's enough to help you understand what they are

  • do not change the class of a word

  • derivational suffixes do

  • For example, the adjective 'quik'

  • can have '-ly' added to it

  • to create the adverb 'quickly'

  • here are two example sentences

  • He had a quick snack

  • That's an adjective

  • He ate it quickly

  • That's an adverb

  • Learning how to use these suffixes

  • is one of the keys to speaking English fluently

  • Before we finish there is one more important idea for us to look at

  • and that is the word family

  • A word family is all of the words that can be made

  • from a single root

  • Take a look at this verb

  • 'expect'

  • We can make the noun 'expectation'

  • We could also make an adjective, 'expectant'

  • or the adverb, 'expectantly'

  • Here's another fun word, 'explode'

  • we could make the noun, 'explosion'

  • and the adjectives, 'exploded',

  • 'explosive'

  • and 'explodable'

  • There is also an adverb,

  • 'explosively'

  • let's take a look at the noun 'shape'

  • there is also a verb, 'shape'

  • this means to give shape to something

  • there are other nouns, 'shaper',

  • 'shapliness',

  • and 'shapelessness'

  • Then we have the adjectives

  • 'shapeable'

  • 'shaped'

  • 'shapely'

  • and 'shapeless'

  • Here's a quick summary of what we've learned

  • in this lesson

  • you've learned about morphemes

  • which are a meaningful group of sounds

  • we've also looked at two types of morphemes in English

  • The root and the affix

  • There are two types of affixes

  • Prefixes and suffixes

  • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word

  • and suffixes are added to the end

  • Again, there are two types of suffixes

  • Grammatical and derivational

  • Grammatical Affixes do not change the class of a word

  • Derivational suffixes, on the other hand, do change the word's class

  • Finally, all the different words that can be created

  • by adding affixes to a root

  • are called a word family

  • Mastering word families is one of the keys to English fluenct

  • Well, that's it folks

  • Have a great day!

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B2 中上級

英単語。ルーツ、接頭辞、接尾辞 (English Vocabulary: Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes)

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    VoiceTube に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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