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  • - [Voiceover] When you take a general chemistry class,

  • you often have to memorize

  • some of the common polyatomic ions.

  • So let's go through a list

  • of some of the ones that you might see in your class.

  • So we'll start off with Cation here,

  • so a positively charged ion,

  • NH four plus is called the Ammonium ion.

  • And for Anions, there are many Anions that you should know.

  • CH three COO minus is the Acetate ion.

  • CN minus is the Cyanide ion.

  • OH minus is the Hydroxide anion.

  • MnO four minus is the Permanganate ion.

  • And, when you get to NO three minus

  • versus NO two minus, look at the endings.

  • So NO three minus is Nitrate, so we have ate suffix,

  • ate suffix here, which means more Oxygens.

  • Versus the ite suffix, which means fewer Oxygens.

  • So we can see that Nitrate has three Oxygens

  • and Nitrite has two Oxygens.

  • And that ending is important because it's gonna help you

  • with some of the other polyatomic ions.

  • For example, let's look at this next set here of four.

  • And let's look at Chlorate.

  • So Chlorate has three Oxygens.

  • It's ClO three minus one.

  • And Chlorite has fewer Oxygens, it has two Oxygens here,

  • ClO two minus.

  • So we have ate meaning more and ite meaning fewer here.

  • What about Perchlorate?

  • So here we have Chlorate,

  • but we've added on a prefix this time

  • and the prefix, per, means one more Oxygen.

  • So Perchlorate means one more Oxygen than Chlorate.

  • Chlorate had three Oxygens and for Perchlorate

  • we add one on and we get four.

  • So Perchlorate is ClO four minus.

  • Next, let's look at Hypochlorite.

  • So we talked about Chlorite up here,

  • so here's Chlorite and then we put

  • a prefix, hypo, in front of it.

  • Hypo means one fewer,

  • so if we look at Chlorite, we had two Oxygens,

  • we take one away and now we have only one Oxygen.

  • So that must be the Hypochlorite ion.

  • We could have done this for a different halogen,

  • here we're dealing with Chlorine,

  • but let's say, instead of ClO three minus,

  • let's do BrO three minus.

  • ClO three minus was Chlorate,

  • here we have Bromine instead of Chlorine,

  • so this would be Bromate.

  • So there's another polyatomic ion

  • and we can do another example.

  • So instead of ClO minus, which is Hypochlorite,

  • we could have had BrO minus,

  • which would therefore be Hypobromite.

  • So this would be Hypobromite.

  • Alright, let's look at our next set of polyatomic ions.

  • Alright, so let's get some space down here.

  • So we have SO four two minus, is called Sulfate.

  • Right, so we have our ate ending.

  • And then we have four Oxygens,

  • so if we go to three Oxygens, SO three two minus,

  • this is Sulfite, cause ite means fewer Oxygens.

  • What about if we took Sulfate, SO four two minus,

  • and we added on an H plus.

  • So H plus and SO four two minus

  • should give us HSO four

  • and then, instead of a negative two here,

  • instead of a two minus, we would just have a one minus,

  • because we added on a positive charge.

  • So one positive charge and two negative charges,

  • give us one negative charge.

  • So HSO four minus is called the Hydrogen Sulfate ion.

  • You might also hear Bisulfate for this one.

  • Next CO three two minus is called Carbonate,

  • so if we add on an H plus to CO three two minus,

  • we'd get HCO three and then we go from minus two

  • or two minus, to minus one,

  • 'cause we're adding on a positive charge here.

  • So HCO three minus is called Hydrogen Carbonate

  • and you'll also hear Bicarbonate a lot.

  • Next we have PO four three minus,

  • which is called Phosphate.

  • If we add on an H plus to Phosphate,

  • think about what we would get.

  • We would get HPO four and then instead of three minus,

  • we're adding on positive charge, so we get two minus.

  • So we call this Hydrogen Phosphate.

  • Alright, let's add on a proton to Hydrogen Phosphate.

  • So we're adding an H plus onto Hydrogen Phosphate.

  • That would give us two H's.

  • PO four and we'd go from two minus down to one minus.

  • So H two PO four minus is called Dihydrogen Phosphate.

  • Alright, let's continue on.

  • One more set of polyatomic ions to know.

  • So we have CrO four two minus,

  • which is called Chromate.

  • And if we have two Chromiums, so Cr two O seven two minus

  • this is called Dichromate.

  • Next, C two O four two minus is called the Oxalate ion.

  • and we have O two, two minus is called Peroxide.

  • And here we have SCN minus,

  • which we call Thiocyanate.

  • So thio, think about sulfur if you see thio there.

  • So for our next one, we have sulfur present again,

  • is S two O three two minus

  • and this one's called Thiosulfate.

  • So you might see a few additional

  • polyatomic ions in your class,

  • but these are the ones that you see most frequently.

  • So make sure to memorize your polyatomic ions.

- [Voiceover] When you take a general chemistry class,

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一般的な多原子イオン (Common polyatomic ions)

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    u10150072 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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