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  • Hey everyone thanks for joining us. Welcome!

  • So today we'll be talking more about articulatory phonetics,

  • which again is the study of the production of speech sounds in the vocal tract.

  • If you haven't already, please take a few minutes to look at our other videos in this series

  • on describing consonant sounds and navigating the international phonetic alphabet.

  • In this video we will be talking about how linguists describe vowel sounds.

  • Just a couple of notes. First again like in the constant video

  • we will only be talking about the phonetics of spoken language rather than sign languages

  • and we will be talking about the vowel sounds as they are used in North American English.

  • There are two types of vowel sounds:

  • Monophthongs and Diphthongs.

  • Monophthongs involve one vowel quality and diphthongs involve too vowel qualities.

  • When linguists are describing vowel sounds, we have to rely on a different set of criteria

  • for what we used in describing consonants because

  • remember, vowels do not involve the constriction of airflow in the vocal tract.

  • so our tongue doesn't approach an anatomical landmark like they do with consonants

  • so the three criteria that linguists use when describing vowel sounds are

  • height, backness and roudedness.

  • Let's talk about each of these in turn.

  • Height refers to how high or or low the tongue is in the mouth when producing the vowel.

  • For example, consider the vowel sounds, [i] and [a].

  • If you say both of these vowels in succession,

  • you should feel your tongue going up and down as you say [i], [a], [i], [a], [i], [a].

  • In terms of height, vowels are either considered high, mid, or low.

  • [i] is an example of the high vowel.

  • [ɑ] is an example of the low vowel.

  • Backness refers to how far front or back the tongue is when producing the vowel.

  • As with vowel height, this can be tricky as it takes some practice,

  • but consider the vowels, [i] and [u].

  • If you say these vowels in succession, you may notice that your tongue is

  • moving forward and backward as you say [i] [u] [i] [u] [i] [u].

  • In terms of backness, vowels are either considered front, central or back.

  • Remember that [i] is a high vowel but it's also a front vowel.

  • while [u] is a back vowel.

  • The third criteria that linguists use when describing vowels is roundedness.

  • Roundedness means whether or not the lips are rounded when producing the vowel.

  • This is something that's very easy as you can feel and see when you are producing a rounded sound,

  • or when the person that you're talking to is producing a rounded sound.

  • so again take the two sounds that we just used.

  • [i] and [u].

  • [u] as you can clearly see and feel is a rounded vowel whereas [i] is not a rounded vowel.

  • [i] [u] [i] [u] [i] [u]

  • Just like with consonants there is a specific order that linguist use when describing vowel sounds.

  • It is height, then backness, then roundedness.

  • For example, [u] is a high back rounded vowel.

  • [Ê] is a low front urounded vowel.

  • Remember, so far we've only been talking about monophthong vowels.

  • If you want to categorize diphthongs in terms of these criteria

  • we must do so for by starting vowel quality as well as the ending vowel quality.

  • But we won't worry about that in this video.

  • Alright so what do we cover in this video?

  • We talked about the criteria that linguist use when describing vowel sounds,

  • and the order that those criteria must appear in,

  • and that's pretty much it for this video.

  • Be sure to check out our other videos and describing consonant sounds

  • and how to navigate the international phonetic alphabet.

  • I hope you enjoy this video. Thanks for watching.

Hey everyone thanks for joining us. Welcome!

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B1 中級

音韻論入門 (母音) (Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Vowels))

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    J.s. Chen に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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