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  • Paul Krugman, the Nobel Prize [winner] in economics, once wrote:

  • "Productivity is not everything, but in the long run,

  • it is almost everything."

  • So this is serious.

  • There are not that many things on earth that are "almost everything."

  • Productivity is the principal driver of the prosperity of a society.

  • So we have a problem.

  • In the largest European economies,

  • productivity used to grow five percent per annum

  • in the '50s, '60s, early '70s.

  • From '73 to '83: three percent per annum.

  • From '83 to '95: two percent per annum.

  • Since 1995: less than one percent per annum.

  • The same profile in Japan.

  • The same profile in the US,

  • despite a momentary rebound 15 years ago,

  • and despite all the technological innovations

  • around us: the Internet, the information,

  • the new information and communication technologies.

  • When productivity grows three percent per annum,

  • you double the standard of living every generation.

  • Every generation is twice as well-off as its parents'.

  • When it grows one percent per annum,

  • it takes three generations to double the standard of living.

  • And in this process, many people will be less well-off than their parents.

  • They will have less of everything:

  • smaller roofs, or perhaps no roof at all,

  • less access to education, to vitamins, to antibiotics, to vaccination --

  • to everything.

  • Think of all the problems that we're facing at the moment.

  • All.

  • Chances are that they are rooted in the productivity crisis.

  • Why this crisis?

  • Because the basic tenets about efficiency --

  • effectiveness in organizations, in management --

  • have become counterproductive for human efforts.

  • Everywhere in public services -- in companies, in the way we work,

  • the way we innovate, invest -- try to learn to work better.

  • Take the holy trinity of efficiency:

  • clarity, measurement, accountability.

  • They make human efforts derail.

  • There are two ways to look at it, to prove it.

  • One, the one I prefer,

  • is rigorous, elegant, nice -- math.

  • But the full math version takes a little while,

  • so there is another one.

  • It is to look at a relay race.

  • This is what we will do today.

  • It's a bit more animated, more visual and also faster -- it's a race.

  • Hopefully, it's faster.

  • (Laughter)

  • World championship final -- women.

  • Eight teams in the final.

  • The fastest team is the US team.

  • They have the fastest women on earth.

  • They are the favorite team to win.

  • Notably, if you compare them to an average team,

  • say, the French team,

  • (Laughter)

  • based on their best performances in the 100-meter race,

  • if you add the individual times of the US runners,

  • they arrive at the finish line 3.2 meters ahead of the French team.

  • And this year, the US team is in great shape.

  • Based on their best performance this year,

  • they arrive 6.4 meters ahead of the French team,

  • based on the data.

  • We are going to look at the race.

  • At some point you will see, towards the end,

  • that Torri Edwards, the fourth US runner, is ahead.

  • Not surprising -- this year she got the gold medal in the 100-meter race.

  • And by the way, Chryste Gaines, the second runner in the US team,

  • is the fastest woman on earth.

  • So, there are 3.5 billion women on earth.

  • Where are the two fastest? On the US team.

  • And the two other runners on the US team are not bad, either.

  • (Laughter)

  • So clearly, the US team has won the war for talent.

  • But behind, the average team is trying to catch up.

  • Let's watch the race.

  • (Video: French sportscasters narrate race)

  • (Video: Race narration ends)

  • Yves Morieux: So what happened?

  • The fastest team did not win; the slower one did.

  • By the way, I hope you appreciate

  • the deep historical research I did to make the French look good.

  • (Laughter)

  • But let's not exaggerate -- it's not archeology, either.

  • (Laughter)

  • But why?

  • Because of cooperation.

  • When you hear this sentence:

  • "Thanks to cooperation, the whole is worth more than the sum of the parts."

  • This is not poetry; this is not philosophy.

  • This is math.

  • Those who carry the baton are slower,

  • but their baton is faster.

  • Miracle of cooperation:

  • it multiplies energy, intelligence in human efforts.

  • It is the essence of human efforts:

  • how we work together, how each effort contributes to the efforts of others.

  • With cooperation, we can do more with less.

  • Now, what happens to cooperation when the holy grail --

  • the holy trinity, even --

  • of clarity, measurement, accountability --

  • appears?

  • Clarity.

  • Management reports are full of complaints about the lack of clarity.

  • Compliance audits, consultants' diagnostics.

  • We need more clarity, we need to clarify the roles, the processes.

  • It is as though the runners on the team were saying,

  • "Let's be clear -- where does my role really start and end?

  • Am I supposed to run for 95 meters, 96, 97...?"

  • It's important, let's be clear.

  • If you say 97, after 97 meters,

  • people will drop the baton, whether there is someone to take it or not.

  • Accountability.

  • We are constantly trying to put accountability

  • in someone's hands.

  • Who is accountable for this process?

  • We need somebody accountable for this process.

  • So in the relay race, since passing the baton is so important,

  • then we need somebody clearly accountable for passing the baton.

  • So between each runner,

  • now we will have a new dedicated athlete,

  • clearly dedicated to taking the baton from one runner,

  • and passing it to the next runner.

  • And we will have at least two like that.

  • Well, will we, in that case, win the race?

  • That I don't know, but for sure,

  • we would have a clear interface,

  • a clear line of accountability.

  • We will know who to blame.

  • But we'll never win the race.

  • If you think about it, we pay more attention

  • to knowing who to blame in case we fail,

  • than to creating the conditions to succeed.

  • All the human intelligence put in organization design --

  • urban structures, processing systems --

  • what is the real goal?

  • To have somebody guilty in case they fail.

  • We are creating organizations able to fail,

  • but in a compliant way,

  • with somebody clearly accountable when we fail.

  • And we are quite effective at that -- failing.

  • Measurement.

  • What gets measured gets done.

  • Look, to pass the baton, you have to do it at the right time,

  • in the right hand, at the right speed.

  • But to do that, you have to put energy in your arm.

  • This energy that is in your arm will not be in your legs.

  • It will come at the expense of your measurable speed.

  • You have to shout early enough to the next runner

  • when you will pass the baton, to signal that you are arriving,

  • so that the next runner can prepare, can anticipate.

  • And you have to shout loud.

  • But the blood, the energy that will be in your throat

  • will not be in your legs.

  • Because you know, there are eight people shouting at the same time.

  • So you have to recognize the voice of your colleague.

  • You cannot say, "Is it you?"

  • Too late!

  • (Laughter)

  • Now, let's look at the race in slow motion,

  • and concentrate on the third runner.

  • Look at where she allocates her efforts,

  • her energy, her attention.

  • Not all in her legs -- that would be great for her own speed --

  • but in also in her throat, arm, eye, brain.

  • That makes a difference in whose legs?

  • In the legs of the next runner.

  • But when the next runner runs super-fast,

  • is it because she made a super effort,

  • or because of the way the third runner passed the baton?

  • There is no metric on earth that will give us the answer.

  • And if we reward people on the basis of their measurable performance,

  • they will put their energy, their attention, their blood

  • in what can get measured -- in their legs.

  • And the baton will fall and slow down.

  • To cooperate is not a super effort,

  • it is how you allocate your effort.

  • It is to take a risk,

  • because you sacrifice the ultimate protection

  • granted by objectively measurable individual performance.

  • It is to make a super difference in the performance of others,

  • with whom we are compared.

  • It takes being stupid to cooperate, then.

  • And people are not stupid; they don't cooperate.

  • You know, clarity, accountability, measurement were OK

  • when the world was simpler.

  • But business has become much more complex.

  • With my teams, we have measured

  • the evolution of complexity in business.

  • It is much more demanding today to attract and retain customers,

  • to build advantage on a global scale,

  • to create value.

  • And the more business gets complex,

  • the more, in the name of clarity, accountability, measurement

  • we multiply structures, processes, systems.

  • You know, this drive for clarity and accountability triggers

  • a counterproductive multiplication of interfaces, middle offices,

  • coordinators that do not only mobilize people and resources,

  • but that also add obstacles.

  • And the more complicated the organization,

  • the more difficult it is to understand what is really happening.

  • So we need summaries, proxies, reports,

  • key performance indicators, metrics.

  • So people put their energy in what can get measured,

  • at the expense of cooperation.

  • And as performance deteriorates,

  • we add even more structure, process, systems.

  • People spend their time in meetings,

  • writing reports they have to do, undo and redo.

  • Based on our analysis, teams in these organizations

  • spend between 40 and 80 percent of their time wasting their time,

  • but working harder and harder, longer and longer,

  • on less and less value-adding activities.

  • This is what is killing productivity,

  • what makes people suffer at work.

  • Our organizations are wasting human intelligence.

  • They have turned against human efforts.

  • When people don't cooperate,

  • don't blame their mindsets, their mentalities, their personality --

  • look at the work situations.

  • Is it really in their personal interest to cooperate or not,

  • if, when they cooperate, they are individually worse off?

  • Why would they cooperate?

  • When we blame personalities

  • instead of the clarity, the accountability, the measurement,

  • we add injustice to ineffectiveness.

  • We need to create organizations

  • in which it becomes individually useful for people to cooperate.

  • Remove the interfaces, the middle offices --

  • all these complicated coordination structures.

  • Don't look for clarity; go for fuzziness.

  • Fuzziness overlaps.

  • Remove most of the quantitative metrics to assess performance.

  • Speed the "what."

  • Look at cooperation, the "how."

  • How did you pass the baton?

  • Did you throw it, or did you pass it effectively?

  • Am I putting my energy in what can get measured --

  • my legs, my speed -- or in passing the baton?

  • You, as leaders, as managers,

  • are you making it individually useful for people to cooperate?

  • The future of our organizations,

  • our companies, our societies

  • hinges on your answer to these questions.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Paul Krugman, the Nobel Prize [winner] in economics, once wrote:

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TED】How Too Many Rules at Work Keep You from Getting Things Done|イヴ・モリュー|TED Talks (【TED】How Too Many Rules at Work Keep You from Getting Things Done | Yves Morieux | TED Talks)

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    Du Jinhan に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日