Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • The beginning of everything.

    すべての始まり ビッグバン

  • The Big Bang.

    宇宙は突然始まり 無限ではない

  • The idea that the universe was suddenly born and is not infinite.

    20世紀半ばまで 科学者は

  • Up to the middle of the 20th century, most scientists thought of the universe

    宇宙は無限だと考えていた

  • as infinite and ageless.

    相対性理論で

  • Until Einstein’s theory of relativity gave us a better understanding of gravity,

    重力に関する理解が深まり

  • and Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving apart from one another

    ハッブルは事前の予測通り

  • in a way that fits previous predictions.

    銀河同士が離れていくのを発見した

  • In 1964, by accident, cosmic background radiation was discovered,

    1964年には 宇宙背景放射が発見され

  • a relic of the early universe,

    他にも様々な証拠が見つかると

  • which, together with other observational evidence, made the Big Bang

    ビッグバン理論は確かな地位を得た

  • the accepted theory in science.

    今 技術の進歩のおかげで

  • Since then, improved technology like the Hubble telescope

    宇宙の構造の理解はより進んでいる

  • has given us a pretty good picture of the Big Bang and the structure of the cosmos.

    ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡は

  • Recent observations even seem to suggest that the expansion of the universe

    宇宙の神秘を教えてくれる

  • is accelerating.

    では ビッグバンとは何か

  • But how did this Big Bang work?

    一体何が起こったのか

  • How can something come from nothing?

    それを見ていこう

  • Let’s explore what we know.

    まず よくある誤解を解こう

  • We can ignore the beginning part for now.

    ビッグバンは爆発ではない

  • First of all, the Big Bang was not an explosion.

    空間が一度に 急激に伸びたのだ

  • It was all space stretching everywhere all at once.

    とても小さかった宇宙が

  • The universe started very, very, very small

    スイカ程度に大きくなった

  • and quickly expanded to the size of a football.

    広がったのは宇宙ではなく

  • The universe didn’t expand into anything, space was just expanding into itself.

    空間だということに注意

  • The universe cannot expand into anything because the universe has no borders;

    宇宙に境界というものは存在せず

  • there is, by definition, nooutsidethe universe.

    定義的に 宇宙に外側はないからだ

  • The universe is all there is.

    宇宙がすべて

  • In this hot, dense environment, energy manifested itself

    さて 熱い所では

  • in particles that existed only for the tiniest glimpses of time.

    エネルギーは一瞬だけ

  • From gluons, pairs of quarks were created, which destroyed one another,

    粒子になることがある

  • perhaps after giving off more gluons.

    グルーオンやクォークが

  • These found other short-lived quarks to interact with,

    作られては一瞬で消えていく

  • forming new quark pairs and gluons again.

    これらが様々に結合し

  • Matter and energy were not just theoretically equivalent,

    様々な結合体が生まれた

  • it was so hot they were practically the same stuff.

    物質とエネルギーは異なるものだが

  • Somewhere around this time, matter won over antimatter.

    熱すぎると同じものになる

  • Today, were left with almost all matter and nearly no antimatter at all.

    ここで物質が反物質に打ち勝ち

  • Somehow, one billion and one matter particles were formed

    今存在する この物質世界が作られた

  • for every one billion particles of antimatter.

    物質が反物質より

  • Instead of one massive ultimate force in the universe,

    10億個につき1個多かったようだ

  • there were now several refined versions of it acting under different rules.

    1つの巨大な力が分かれて

  • By now the universe has stretched to a billion kilometers in diameter,

    異なる法則に従う4つの力となった

  • which leads to a decrease in temperature.

    宇宙が直径10億キロまで伸びると

  • The cycle of quarks being born and converted back to energy

    圧力が下がった

  • suddenly stops.

    するとクォークはそのまま固定され

  • From now on, we work with what we have.

    今の形へ向かった

  • Quarks begin forming new particles, hadrons, like protons and neutrons.

    クォークは新しい粒子

  • There are many, many combinations of quarks that can form all sorts of hadrons,

    陽子と中性子になった

  • but only very few are reasonably stable for any length of time.

    組み合わせはたくさんあったが

  • Please take a moment to appreciate that by now, only one second has passed

    安定して存在するものは少なかった

  • since the beginning of everything.

    色々説明したが ここまで

  • The universe, which has grown to one hundred billion kilometers,

    始まりから1秒しか経っていない

  • is now cold enough to allow most of the neutrons to decay into protons

    宇宙が1兆キロになると

  • and form the first atom, hydrogen.

    少し冷え 陽子と中性子がくっついて

  • Imagine the universe at this point as an extremely hot soup,

    最初の原子 水素になった

  • ten billion degrees Celsius, filled with countless particles and energy.

    まるでとても熱いスープだ

  • Over the next few minutes, things cooled and settled down very fast.

    無数の粒子とエネルギーが

  • Atoms formed out of hadrons and electrons,

    100億度で存在した

  • making for a stable and electrically neutral environment.

    次の数分間 急激に温度が下がると

  • Some call this period the Dark Age, because there were no stars

    原子核と電子が一緒になり

  • and the hydrogen gas didn’t allow visible light to move around.

    安定で中性な環境を作った

  • But what’s the meaning of visible light, anyway, when there’s nothing alive yet

    この時期を暗黒時代と言う

  • that could have eyes?

    星がなく ガスも目に見えないからだ

  • When the hydrogen gas clumped together after millions of years and

    見えないと言っても

  • gravity put it under great pressure, stars and galaxies began to form.

    目では見えないだけだが

  • Their radiation dissolved the stable hydrogen gas into a plasma

    ガスが集まって数百万年後

  • that still permeates the universe today and allows visible light to pass.

    重力が力を持ち

  • Finally, there was light!

    星や銀河が形作られた

  • Okay, but what about the part we didn’t talk about?

    そして水素から発せられる放射線が

  • What happened right at the beginning?

    今日の宇宙に浸透し

  • This part can be defined as the Big Bang.

    可視光線となっている

  • We don’t know at all what happened here.

    宇宙に光が満ちたのだ

  • At this point, our tools break down.

    まだ話してないこともある

  • Natural laws stop making sense, time itself becomes wibbly-wobbly.

    始まりの瞬間のことだ

  • To understand what happened here, we need a theory that unifies

    ビッグバンとは定義したが

  • Einstein’s relativity and quantum mechanics, something countless

    よくわかってはいない

  • scientists are working on right now.

    ここでは人間の道具は壊れてしまう

  • But this leaves us with lots of unanswered questions.

    時間が計算不能になるのだ

  • Were there universes before our own?

    解明するには

  • Is this the first and only universe?

    相対性理論と量子論の統一が必要で

  • What started the Big Bang, or did it just occur naturally,

    今 無数の科学者が研究中だ

  • based on laws we don’t understand yet?

    他にも疑問は残っている

  • We don’t know, and maybe we never will.

    宇宙は以前も存在したのか

  • But what we do know is that the universe as we know it started here

    今の宇宙だけか

  • and gave birth to particles, galaxies, stars, the Earth, and you.

    なぜビッグバンが起きたのか

  • Since were ourselves are made of dead stars, we are not separate

    未知の法則によって起きたのか

  • from the universe; we are part of it.

    これはわかりそうにない

  • You could even say that we are the universe’s way of experiencing itself.

    しかし 宇宙が今

  • So, let’s keep on experiencing it, until there are no more questions to ask.

    ここにあることはわかる

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    そして粒子 銀河 星 地球

The beginning of everything.

すべての始まり ビッグバン

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級 日本語 宇宙 ビッグ 物質 クォーク 粒子 存在

すべての始まり - ビッグバン (The Beginning of Everything -- The Big Bang)

  • 389 64
    vulvul に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語