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  • The first and most important part of a figure drawing is the layin. Without a good layin

  • you rarely end up with a good drawing.

  • In the last lesson we learned the average proportions of the body. The problem with

  • that is when the body moves out of the static soldier pose, those measurements change the

  • way they're are perceived by our eye. Foreshortening changes these relationships. If drawing from

  • imagination you can remember the proportions and do your best to apply perspective to them.

  • If drawing from a reference photo or a model we are given the opportunity to measure. A

  • direct way to transfer the effects of perspective to our drawing.

  • Measuring is exclusive to observational drawing and you won't use it so much when drawing

  • from imagination, but it's important to practice because it tunes your eye to what's correct.

  • Measure with your Pencil

  • We can use all sorts of measuring tools like calipers or string. I like to use the tool

  • already in my hand - the pencil!

  • 1.Hold your arm straight out, without bending the elbow. Bending the elbow will bring the

  • measurement closer to your eye and increase the size. The measurement will be consistent

  • if the elbow is locked. 2.Tilt your head to bring the eyes as close

  • as possible to the pivot point at your shoulder. This is important to keep the measurements

  • consistent throughout the whole subject. If you dont do this. When measuring around the

  • top of the pose, the pencil will be closer to your eyes and when measuring around the

  • feet it will be farther from your eyes. This difference in the distance makes the measurements

  • inconsistent. Keep your eye near the shoulder to minimize this.

  • 3.Close one eye. 4.Use the tip of the pencil as the top point

  • of whatever youre measuring and put your thumb at the bottom point.

  • 5.Now that you have the unit, you can compare it to another part of the figure. For example,

  • it's very common to count how many head lengths fit in the height of the pose. Move your measurement

  • down below the chin and note where your thumb is. Repeat that down the figure and count

  • the units. This pose is 7.5 heads tall.

  • You can do this to measure relationship of anything in the pose, not just the head. You

  • can say the length of this arm is the same as the length of the lower leg or whatever

  • works for the pose.

  • The approach I’m suggesting here does NOT require that the size you measured with the

  • pencil be directly transferred to the paper at the same size. That would be called the

  • sight-size method, where the drawing is the same size as the subject you are seeing.

  • Measuring Relationships

  • The approach I’m showing today involves measuring relationships to make the composition

  • fit on the size surface you're working on. Weve established that the pose is 7.5 head

  • talls. The size of our paper allows the pose to be about this big, so mark the top and

  • bottom. Then break it up into 7.5 units. That tells you how big the head should be on the

  • page and you have points for the all the places where the head units lie on the pose.

  • Doing this helps to prevent one of the most common rookie mistakes - progressively drawing

  • things bigger as you go down the page, or smaller as you go down the page. This happens

  • because we get tunnel-vision. We focus on the small portion of the drawing we are currently

  • working on. We relate things only to the things near them instead of the whole picture. And

  • if we tend to measure things slightly bigger than they really are, the drawing will slowly

  • get bigger and bigger as we work our way down the page. Relating the whole thing first is

  • a way to step back and look at the big picture. Make sure the foundation works before we add

  • the parts.

  • Already this tells us a lot and it makes measuring the rest of the figure much easier. We can

  • also rotate the head unit horizontally and do the same thing for the width of the pose.

  • Notice how in this pose the head is closer to the left side. Avoid putting it in the

  • exact center by default, since that could create an unbalanced composition. Think about

  • the placement of the drawing vertically AND horizontally.

  • At this point you could also find the center point of the pose by dividing the height and

  • width in half. Then find where that center point is on the model. In this pose the center

  • point is about here in his right glute.

  • Shapes and Angles

  • With the head units in place, we can start drawing in the shapes. Start with the largest

  • shapes and use simple lines. The largest shape we can use is what’s called the Envelope.

  • Use large angles connecting the outside points of the whole pose. Imagine if the pose was

  • gift wrapped. Doing this allows you to look at the big picture and establish its perimeter.

  • Everything else should fit inside this shape.

  • Now start observing the next largest shapes along of the body. Focus on getting the angles

  • right with simple gesture lines. Remember that a gesture line can be either a straight

  • line, C curve or S curve. It should capture the motion of the form. This allows you to

  • get the big picture working without committing to any details. You can easily make corrections

  • as you go. Once you start adding subtleties in the contours, it’s less likely that you

  • will change things and if you do, it’s more time consuming because you have to redo all

  • the details. So, keep it simple and worry only about the major relationships at first.

  • It’s also a good idea to keep your lines thin and light. Most of these initial construction

  • lines will need to be erased later, so if you draw dark thick lines, youll end up

  • with a very messy drawing.

  • Though we are drawing gesture lines here, it’s a bit different from the 30 second

  • - 5 minute quicksketches we did in the beginning of this course. In the quicksketches, we were

  • not too concerned about the proportions. Only the motion and energy. It’s hard to get

  • accurate proportions in a 30 seconds sketch. In this lesson we are much more concerned

  • about proportions. As a result we will lose some gesture because were not exaggerating

  • as much, or not at all. It’s a side effect of careful measuring. Usually, my goal is

  • to construct accurately while capturing as much gesture as possible.

  • Plumb Lines

  • A plumb line is an exact vertical line that you can drop to see alignments within the

  • pose. If drawing from a model we can actually use a string with a weight at the end to determine

  • a perfect vertical. Here we see that the acromion process aligns with the inside of the heel.

  • Also the armpit aligns with the outside of the knee and ball of the foot.…

  • We can also use horizontal alignments. Horizontal and vertical measurements are more accurate

  • than angles. They are much easier to get right because you can align them with the edge of

  • the paper and we tend to have a pretty clear vision in our mind of a horizontal and vertical.

  • Subtle angle variations can make a big difference. Such as measuring an angle from the head to

  • the shoulders to find the width of the shoulders. If your angle is slightly off on both sides,

  • the shoulders end up being wider or narrower than you intended. It’s ok to use angle

  • relationships, I do all the time, just keep in mind that there’s more room for error.

  • Double check them when possible with verticals and horizontals.

  • Triangulation

  • Something that might help to measure angles is triangulation - measuring angles of 3 points

  • instead of 2. If weve determined these 2 points to be correct and were trying

  • to find the placement of a third, we can estimate the angle from one point and then the other.

  • If these two estimates don’t match, well then we have to re-measure them. The actual

  • point is probably somewhere in between. Then we can look at the triangle shape made by

  • these points and compare that. This gives us another chance to catch a mistake since

  • were looking at a shape not just the angle of a line.

  • Each Pose is Unique

  • Each pose has its own solutions, relationships that make the most sense to measure for that

  • particular pose. For example, in this pose the length from the elbow to the fingertips

  • is exactly 2 head units. However in this pose it’s not a nice whole number. It’s a little

  • bit less than two. So, you might need to look for other relationships that will help you

  • find that length. A plumb line from the fingertips lines up with the edge of the pinky of the

  • other hand. And the elbow lines up with the point directly in the middle of the chest.

  • It's nice when things relate with whole numbers. But, sometimes you'll need to take your best

  • guess at "a little bit less than 2". And then check it with other relationships.

  • Negative Shapes

  • Another trick to find accurate shapes is to look at the negative shapes. A negative shape

  • is the space around or between the subject. It’s the background. The shape here between

  • the thighs is a triangular shape. This shape is easier for us judge then the shapes of

  • the thighs themselves because we have less preconceived opinions about what that shape

  • should look like. So, we are more likely to make an unbiased evaluation of the negative

  • shapes.

  • Trust Your Eyes

  • If something looks wrong, then it's wrong, no matter how many times you measured it.

  • The mistake might be between a relationship you didn't measure or the small margins of

  • error in the measuring compounded to make a significant mistake. Being a millimeter

  • off while holding the pencil up, can add up to inches in your drawing. So, measuring will

  • get you close, but its much more important to develop your eye to see relationships without

  • a ruler. Your eye can be a much better tool than a ruler. The way to develop this is to

  • do a lot of careful drawings focusing on getting accurate proportions. When you practice these

  • exercises, it’s important to have a feedback loop. Either have someone with a trained eye

  • to check your drawing or have a method to check it yourself.

  • In the premium section I introduce two methods of practicing and checking yourself.

  • Details

  • Now that all the major shapes are in place, it’s safe to focus on the smaller parts

  • and add the more subtle plane changes along the contours and within the forms.

  • What about Gesture?

  • This episode has been about capturing accuracy. But how important is accuracy? That’s up

  • for debate of course.. I don’t think the answer is the same for everyone. How much

  • do you want to change your reference? How important is it that you capture the exact

  • likeness of the subject? Or is it more important to capture the feeling in an expressive way?

  • There’s a balance to this and that’s partly what determines your style.

  • In the early stages of your learning process focus on complete accuracy. Make it as perfect

  • as possible to tune your eye and to develop the ability to draw accurately. Don’t choose

  • to be more expressive simply because youre not capable of accuracy yet. Expand your abilities

  • so that you have the choice. Lean towards accuracy when the job requires it and lean

  • towards expression when the artwork calls for it.

  • For practice, start by separating the two concepts

  • 1. Do longer careful drawings focusing on getting accurate proportions

  • 2. And do shorter sketches focusing on gesture

  • Eventually the two will mold together and be part of your thought process. Ultimately

  • during each stroke you will be making subconscious decisions considering both accuracy and expression.

  • In the next video I’ll show you how to use these principles in an actual figure drawing.

  • I’ll take you step by step through the whole process. This video is available in the Premium

  • Section. I also show you 2 methods of practicing measuring and checking yourself. So if youre

  • interested in seeing that and the rest of the Figure Drawing Fundamentals Course, check

  • out proko.com/figure. The Full course has extended versions and a lot of examples from

  • the lessons like, gesture, structure, bean, robo bean, mannequinization, balance, exaggeration,

  • proportion, measuring and shading. A lot of information and it’s very affordable. Proko.com/figure.

  • Credits

  • If you like this video, share the wealth, tell your friends. Post it on your favorite

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  • to be updated about new videos. Buh Bye!

The first and most important part of a figure drawing is the layin. Without a good layin

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B1 中級

図面の測定技術 (Drawing Measuring Techniques)

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    vulvul に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日