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  • The international banking system is an enigma.

    銀行の仕組みは謎だ

  • There are more than 30,000 different banks worldwide

    銀行は世界に3万以上あり

  • and they hold unbelievable amounts of assets.

    多額の資産を持っている

  • The top 10 banks alone account for roughly 25 trillion U.S. dollars.

    上位10の銀行だけでも

  • Today, Banking can seem very complex,

    合わせて約25兆ドルだ

  • but originally, the idea was to make life simpler.

    銀行業は複雑だが

  • 11th Century Italy was the center of European Trading.

    人々の生活を単純にしてくれる

  • Merchants from all over the continent met to trade their goods.

    11世紀 貿易中心国イタリアでは

  • But there was one problem,

    商人たちが取引していたが

  • too many currencies in circulation.

    一つ問題があった

  • In Pisa, merchants had to deal with seven different types of coins

    通貨が多すぎたのだ

  • and had to exchange their money constantly.

    ピサでは 商人は7種類の硬貨を扱い

  • This exchange business, which commonly took place outdoors on benches,

    絶えず両替えしていた

  • is where we get the word bank from.

    両替えは通常 外のベンチで行われ

  • From the wordbanco,” Italian for bench.

    これがbankの語源 "banco"

  • The dangers of traveling, counterfeit money, and the difficulty of getting a loan

    イタリア語でベンチだ

  • got people thinking.

    旅での危険 偽造通貨などで

  • It was time for a new business model.

    人々が悩むようになると

  • Pawn brokers started to give credit to businessmen,

    新しいビジネスが現れた

  • while genoese merchants developed cashless payments.

    質屋を利用することによる

  • Networks of banks spread all over Europe handing out credit,

    現金不要の信用取引だ

  • even to the church or european kings.

    この仕組みは国を越えて広がり

  • What about today?

    教会や国王にまで広がった

  • In a nutshell, banks are in the risk management business.

    今 銀行はそのリスクを管理している

  • This is a simplified version of the way it works.

    仕組みを簡単に説明しよう

  • People keep their money in banks and receive a small amount of interest.

    人々は銀行に預金し 利子をもらう

  • The bank takes this money and lends it out at much higher interest rates.

    銀行はお金を より高い金利で貸す

  • It's a calculated risk, because some of the lenders will default on their credit.

    返せなくなる人がいる分

  • This process is essential for our economic system

    多少リスクがある

  • because it provides resources for people to buy things like houses

    この仕組みが経済には必要で

  • or for industry to expand their business and grow.

    人々が家を買ったり

  • So banks take funds that are unused by savers

    企業が成長するための資金になる

  • and turn them into funds society can use to do stuff.

    銀行はお金を 使わない人から

  • Other sources of income for banks include

    使う人へと回しているのだ

  • accepting saving deposits, the credit card business, buying and selling currencies,

    銀行の他の収入源には 積立預金や

  • custodian business, and cash management services.

    クレジットカード 為替取引

  • The main problem with banks nowadays is

    資金管理業務などがある

  • that a lot of them have abandoned their traditional role as

    現代の銀行の問題は

  • providers of long term financial products in favour of short term gains

    銀行が従来の長期的商品を捨て

  • that carry much higher risks.

    短期的利益を目指すことで

  • During the financial boom, most major banks adopted financial

    リスクが高まることだ

  • constructs that were barely comprehensible and

    金融ブームの時 銀行はこの波に乗り

  • did their own trading in a bid to make fast money

    手っ取り早く自身で取引することで

  • and earn their executives and traders millions in bonuses.

    役員と株主は多額の収入を得た

  • This was nothing short of gambling

    正にギャンブルで

  • and damaged whole economies and societies.

    経済は大打撃を受けた

  • Like back in 2008,

    2008年 リーマン・ブラザーズは

  • when banks like Lehman Brothers gave credit to basically anyone who

    家を買う誰にでも融資し

  • wanted to buy a house,

    非常に危険な状態に身を置いた

  • and thereby put the bank in an extremely dangerous risk position.

    これが住宅市場の崩壊を招き

  • This led to the collapse of the housing market in the US and parts of Europe,

    株価は急落 影響は世界的に広まって

  • causing stock prices to plummet,

    歴史的な金融危機となった

  • which eventually led to a global banking crisis

    数千億ドルが溶けて消えた

  • and one of the largest financial crises in history.

    何百万人もが仕事と金を失った

  • Hundreds of billions of dollars just evaporated.

    多くの銀行が損失を出し

  • Millions of people lost their jobs and lots of money.

    銀行家の信用は地に落ちた

  • Most of the world's major banks had to pay billions in fines

    米国政府とEUは

  • and bankers became some of the least trusted professionals.

    大規模な救済措置を発動し

  • The US government and the European Union had to put together huge

    銀行を破産から守った

  • bailout packages to purchase bad assets and stop the banks from going bankrupt.

    銀行業務に新規制が作られ

  • New regulations were put into force to govern the banking business :

    危機に対応できるよう

  • Compulsory bank emergency funds were enforced

    資金準備が義務付けられた

  • to absorb shocks in the event of another financial crisis.

    また 銀行のロビー活動は禁止された

  • But, other pieces of tough new legislation were successfully blocked by the banking lobby.

    今 別の形の資金提供が育っている

  • Today, other models of providing financing are gaining ground fast,

    新しい投資銀行では

  • like new investment banks, that charge a yearly fee and do not get commissions on sales,

    年間手数料を受け取って

  • thus providing the motivation to act in the best interests of their clients.

    顧客の利益志向の運営を行っている

  • Or credit unions : Cooperative initiatives that were established in the 19th century

    信用組合は 19世紀からあるものだが

  • to circumvent credit sharks.

    信用を重視する

  • In a nutshell, they provide the same financial services as banks,

    銀行と同じような業務を行うが

  • but focus on shared value, rather than profit maximization.

    利益より 共有を主眼としたものだ

  • The self proclaimed goal is to help members create opportunities like starting small businesses,

    組合員の 事業を始めるといった

  • expanding farms, or building family homes whilist investing back in to communities.

    機会作りを支援する

  • They are controlled by their members, who also elect the board of directors democratically.

    農業や住宅事業など

  • Worldwide, credit union systems vary significantly,

    共同体に資するものだ

  • ranging from a handful of members

    組織は自営的で

  • to organizations worth several billion US dollars

    取締役は民主的に選ばれる

  • and hundreds of thousands of members.

    信用組合は世界中にある

  • The focus on benefits for their members

    小規模なものから

  • impacts the risk credit unions are willing to take.

    何十万人からなる大規模なものまで

  • Which explains why Credit Unions, although also hurting,

    信用組合の利点は

  • survived the last financial crisis way better than traditional banks.

    リスクに強いことだ

  • Not to forget the explosion of crowdfunding in recent years.

    信用組合も損害を受けたが

  • Aside from making awesome video games possible,

    従来の銀行よりも危機に耐えられた

  • platforms arose that enabled people to get loans from large groups of small investors,

    クラウドファンディングもある

  • circumventing the bank as a middle man.

    素敵なゲームを作る時など

  • But it also works for industry.

    小さな投資家が大勢集まることで

  • Lots of new technology companies started out on Kickstarter or Indiegogo.

    銀行に代わって融資する

  • The funding individual gets the satisfaction of being part of a bigger thing,

    企業も使っている

  • and can invest in ideas they believe in.

    新技術に関わる企業が取り入れた

  • Whilst spreading the risk so widely

    出資者は事業に参加しつつ

  • that if the project fails, the damage is limited.

    信じるものに投資できる

  • And last but not least: Micro Credits.

    リスク分散型で

  • Lots of very small loans,

    失敗しても 損害は限定的だ

  • mostly handed out in developing countries that help people escape poverty.

    マイクロクレジットも

  • People who were previously unable to get access to the money they needed to start a business

    少額の融資が

  • because they weren't deemed worth the time.

    主に途上国で行われている

  • Nowadays, the granting of Micro Credits has evolved into a multibillion dollar business.

    今まで 貧しい人は融資されなかった

  • So, banking might not be up your street,

    無駄とみなされたのだ

  • But the bank's role of providing funds to people and businesses

    それが今 大きなビジネスに成長した

  • is crucial for our society, and has to be done.

    銀行が街から消えても

  • Who will do it and how it will be done in the future

    同じ役割は必要とされるし

  • is up for us to decide, though.

    社会にとって重要なものだ

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    将来どの形を選ぶかは 私たち次第だ

The international banking system is an enigma.

銀行の仕組みは謎だ

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B1 中級 日本語 銀行 信用 組合 リスク 仕組み 取引

銀行の説明 - お金とクレジット (Banking Explained – Money and Credit)

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    mommy に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語