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This hypothetical cross section represents a hundred million of years of sedimentation,
tectonism, & volcanism. How did it form? First, to orient you, lets look at what is on the
surface. This lake which has cut down through the surrounding sedimentary bedrock is near
a volcanic dome that is surrounded by fallout deposits Now, let's remove the foreground
in a giant fault to expose the cross section. In general, young rock layers overlie older
rock layers. Gaps in the sequence, called unconformities are due to erosion, absence
of deposition, or faulting. We start with a layer of undeformed bedrock
on a tectonic plate that gets drown by a sediment-laden sea, both precipitating limestones and forming
sandstones near the shores. Marine or lacustrine sedimentation is the the process where particles
either precipitate out of solution or where rock, mineral and/or organic material break
down and accumulate as strata. The seas recede and the layers are subjected
them to regional compressional forces which deform the tectonic plate creating folds in
the bedrock. Over millions of years windblown sediment, as well as water- and gravity-transported
sands and gravels from eroding uplands blanket the area. Subsequent regional extension stretches
the plate until it drops along faults in basin-range fashion.
During extension, the thinning crust allows the slow rise of magma from the mantle. Lava
erupts to the surface, but is displaced during continued extension. Sediment accumulation
creates an angular unconformity over the faulted rock. Large lake covers the area and continued
sedimentation forms flat-lying bedding. Renewed extension results in more faulting. A long
period of sedimentation and erosion is accompanied by the slow rise of magma below the thinned
crust and an explosive volcanic eruption through a lake.
Quiet dome building caps the story.
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Stratigraphic Cross Section—Interpreting the Geology (Educational)

724 タグ追加 保存
羅紹桀 2015 年 7 月 30 日 に公開
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