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  • GOOD MORNING, EVERYONE. GREETINGS OF THOSE JOINING US THREW THE LIVE

  • FEED. THIS IS WEEK SEVEN OF THE COURSE IT'S MY PLEASURE

  • TO INTRODUCE TO YOU DR. LYNN JORDE FROM THE UTAH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE.

  • HER RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE IN THE AREA OF GENE MAP AND EVOLUTIONARY GENETIC.

  • HIS GROUP IS ANALYZING VARIATIONS IN GENE IN THE PATHWAY WITH THE GOAL OF HOPING TO

  • BETTER UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF THESE GENES IN TO HYPERTENSION AND HIS WORK ALSO FOCUSES

  • ON A NUMBER OF OTHER DISORDERS SUCH AS THE GENETICS OF JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

  • AND INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. NUCLEAR DNA FOCUSING ON MOBILE ELEMENTS, THE

  • GOAL OF THIS WORK IS TO UNDERSTAND BETTER THE GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND MIGRATION OF MAN

  • AND HOW THESE DATA MIGHT BE USED TO DETERMINE THE RELEVANCE OF RACE, RACE IN QUOTATION MARKS

  • IN BIOMEDICAL SETTINGS WHICH THE DOCTOR WILL TALK TO YOU ABOUT THIS MORNING.

  • FINALLY, LYNN IS ONE OF THE MOST WONDERFUL LECTURERS THAT I KNOW I WAS VERY SURE THAT

  • YOU'RE GOING TO ENJOY TODAY AS LECTURE AND LEARN A LOT FROM HIM THIS MORNING.

  • TODAY'S LECTURE AGAIN IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE YOU AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIELD OF POPULATION

  • GENETICS MY PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE TO YOU. [APPLAUSE]

  • >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH. IT'S A PLEASURE TO BE BACK HERE AGAIN.

  • THIS MORNING I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE YOU TO THE TWO OF THE FIELD OF POPULATION GENETICS.

  • MY TALK WILL BE DIVIDED IN THREE PARTS, AT THAT TIME EARNS -- PATTERNS OF HUMAN GENETICS

  • BOTH AMONG HUMAN AND AMONG INDIVIDUALS WHICH WE CAN NOW LOOK AT WITH SOME PRECISION.

  • WE'LL TALK ABOUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS WORK FOR CONCEPTS OF RACE, SOMETHING THAT

  • IS CONTROVERSIAL AND SOMETHING THAT I THINK IS ILLUMINATED BY OUR GENETIC STUDIES.

  • THEN FINALLY IN THE THIRD PART OF THE TALK WE'LL DISCUSS HOW POPULATION GENETICS, EVOLUTIONARY

  • GENETICS INFORMS OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THINGS LIKE LINKAGE TO DISEQUILIBRIUM, THE HAPMAP

  • AND OUR CONTINUING SEARCH FOR GENES UPPED LYING DISEASE.

  • WITH MUTATION. THE GENERATOR OF GENETIC VARIATION.

  • WE ESTIMATE BASED ON PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS THAT THE HUMAN MUTATION RATE IS ABOUT 2.5

  • TIMES TO THE -- PER BASE PER PER GENERATION. WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT WE TRANSMIT ABOUT

  • 75 OR SO NEW DNA VARIANTS WITH EACH GAMETE. I SHOULD SAY THAT SOME OF THE NEW GENOME ANALYSES

  • OF FAMILIES ARE SUGGESTING THAT THIS RATE IS OVERESTIMATED AND THAT THE ACTUAL MUTATION

  • RATE MAY BE ABOUT HALF OF THIS. INTERESTING TO SEE AS THOSE STUDIES COME OUT

  • WHERE THE MUTATION RATE FINALLY LANDS. BUT WE THINK NOW IT MIGHT BE ROUGHLY HALF

  • OF THE USUALLY CITED PHYLOGENETIC ESTIMATE. HERE IS A QUOTE FROM LOUIS THAT I LIKE VERY

  • MUCH. HE SAID THE CAPACITY TO BLUNDER SLIGHTLY IS

  • THE REAL MARVEL OF DNA, WITHOUT THIS SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE WE WOULD STILL BE ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

  • AND BE NO NUCLEUS US. THAT IS A LOVELY QUOTE.

  • REMAINS US OF WHY WE SHOULD BE THANKFUL FOR OUR MUTATIONS.

  • WELL, ONE OF THE QUESTIONS THAT WE CAN ASK AS WE LOOK AT DNA VARIATION IN INDIVIDUALS

  • AND POPULATIONS SPECIE IS HOW MUCH AT THE DNA LEVEL DID WE DIFFER?

  • IF WE LOOK AT ALIGNED DNA BASE DIFFERENCES, IDENTICAL TWINS BEING NATURE'S CLONES HAVE

  • ZERO DNA SEQUENCE DIFFERENCES. A FAMOUS FIGURE NOW, IS THAT IF WE LOOK AT

  • ANY TWO UNRELATED HUMANS, FOR ALIGNED DNA BASE DIFFERENCES WE VARY ABOUT ONLY ONE IN

  • 1,000. SEVERAL TIMES MORE THAN THIS IF YOU INCLUDE

  • COPY NUMBER VARIANTS BUT FOR ALIGNABLE SEQUENCE WE ARE AS HAS BEEN SAID MANY TIMES NOW 99.9%.

  • IF WE COMPARE OURSELVES IN THE SAME WAY TOURER NEAREST NEIGHBOR, THE CHIMP WE DIFFER ABOUT

  • 1 IN A HUNDRED BASE PAIRS FROM THE CHIMP. IN THE SENSE WE'RE 99% CHIMP.

  • IF WE COMPARE OURSELVES TO MOUSE, ABOUT ONE IN THREE BASE DIFFERS COMPARES HUMANS AND

  • MOUSE. THIS WE GO OUT FURTHER WE ARE DIFFERENT FROM

  • BROCCOLI. BUT WHAT THIS MEANS IS THAT WE HAVE THREE

  • BILLION DNA BASE PAIRS, THAT MEANS THERE ARE ABOUT THREE MILLION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EACH

  • PAIR OF HUMANS. SO A TREMENDOUS RESERVOIR OF GENETIC VARIATION

  • THAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE DIVERSITY THAT WE SEE. HOW MUCH DO POPULATIONS DIFFER?

  • THAT IS THE FIRST AREA THAT WE LOOK AT THIS MORNING.

  • HERE WE SEE A MAP OF THE WORLD WITH THE POPULATION THAT I'LL BE TALKING ABOUT DESIGNATED.

  • WE'VE BEEN TRYING TO SAMPLE MORE AND MORE EXTENSIVELY ACROSS THE WORLD AND IN COLLABORATION

  • WITH THE FOUNDATION IN SALT LAKE CITY WHO HAVE COLLECTED MORE THAN 100,000 DNA SAMPLES

  • FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. I'M GO STEMMING YOU ABOUT VARIATION IN A THOUSAND

  • INDIVIDUALS REPRESENTING 40 POPULATIONS. REALLY QUITE DIVERSITY.

  • HERE ARE SOME OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF SOME OF THE TALKS I'LL BE TELLING YOU ABOUT.

  • TO ASSESS VARIATION THE STANDARD APPROACH IS TO LOOK AT ALLELE FREQUENCIES.

  • IF WE IMAGE IN THAT WE HAVE THREE SNPS SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS THAT WE'RE ANALYZING.

  • WE CAN SEE THAT THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN THE FREQUENCIES OF THESE THREE SNPS IN POPULATIONS

  • ONE, TWO AND THREE. WE LOOK AT THOSE DIFFERENCES, WE LOOK AT THAT

  • VARIATION TO ASSESS PATTERNS OF SIMILARITY AMONG POPULATIONS.

  • THIS IS ONE OF TWO EQUATIONS THAT I'LL SHOW YOU.

  • I'M NOT GOING TO TORTURE YOU WITH MATHEMATICS THIS MORNING THIS IS PRETTY SIMPLE.

  • IT SHOWS HOW WE ESTIMATE A STATISTIC CALLED FST TO ASSESS VARIATION BETWEEN POPULATION.

  • SO, FST IS THE AMOUNT OF GENETIC VARIATION THAT IS DUE TO POPULATION DIFFERENCES.

  • AND WE GET IT BY LOOKING AT THE TOTAL HETEROZYGOCITY. TOTAL VARIATION ACROSS OUR SAMPLES, THAT'S

  • H SUB2. FROM THAT TOTAL WE SUBTRACT THE AVERAGE HETEROZYGOCITY

  • WITHIN EACH SUBDIVISION. IF FST IS ZERO ALL OF THE VARIATION THAT WE

  • AB EVERYBODY DAB DAB OBSERVE ARE IN POPULATIONS, THE AVERAGE WITHIN SUBDIVISIONS IS EQUAL TO

  • THE TOTAL. THERE'S NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POPULATION.

  • THE OTHER HAND IF FST IS ONE, THEN ALL OF THE VARIATION EXISTS BETWEEN POPULATIONS.

  • ONLY WAY WE CAN GET THIS WOULD BE FOR H TO BE ZERO.

  • IN OTHER WORDS ALL OF OUR POPULATION OR IN THIS CASE CONTINENTS WOULD CONSIST OF IDENTICAL

  • CLONE. NO VARIATIONS WITHIN SUBDIVISIONS.

  • FST OF ONE, MAXIMUM VARIATION BETWEEN SUBDIVISIONS, FST OF ZERO, NONE.

  • IF WE LOOK AT THIS STATISTIC IN SERIES OF POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SAMPLES, IF WE LOOK AT

  • STRS, RESTRICTION SITE POLYMORPHISMS AND L1S AND 250K SNP ARRAY WE SEE THAT THE FST VALUE

  • FOR OUR HUMAN POPULATION IS PRETTY CONSISTENTLY SOMEWHERE BETWEEN 10-15%.

  • THIS WE SEE IN MANY STUDIES DIFFERENT KINDS OF DNA POLYMORPHISMS, DIFFERENT SETS OF POPULATIONS,

  • BUT TYPICALLY ROUGHLY 10 TO 15% OF GENETIC VARIATION CAN BE ASCRIBED TO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN

  • THESE MAJOR POPULATIONS. THAT'S RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT.

  • TELLING US THAT THERE ISN'T THAT MUCH VARIATION BETWEEN HUMAN POPULATIONS OR THESE LARGELY

  • NEUTRAL DNA VARIANT. WE CAN COMPARE THAT WITH SKIN PIGMENTATION.

  • , WE SEE THE OPPOSITE PATTERN. 90% OF VARIATION EXISTS BETWEEN POPULATION.

  • VERY DIFFERENT PATTERN FROM WHAT WE LOOK AT ACTUAL DNA VARIATION.

  • THESE ARE TRAITS, THIS IS STRONGLY SELECTED IN HUMAN POPULATION FOR DIFFERENT AND DIVERGENT.

  • IF WE LOOK AT THE THREE HAPMAP POPULATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN DERIVED POPULATIONS, THE TWO

  • ASIAN POPULATIONS WE JUST LOOK AT THOSE, THAT'S A LIMITED SAMPLE OF HUMAN DIVERSITY.

  • GIVES US A HIGH FST VALUE ABOUT 15%. IF WE START TO SAMPLE MORE POPULATIONS OF

  • FST TENDS TO GO DOWN THAT IS LESS VARIATION BETWEEN POPULATIONS AS WE SAMPLE MORE OF THE

  • WORLD'S DIVERSITY. HERE LOOKING AT 27 POPULATIONS PST HAS GONE

  • DOWN. THE IMPORTANCE IMPORTANT AS WE SAMPLE MORE

  • EVENLY ACROSS THE GLOBE THIS LEVEL OF DIFFERENTIATION TENDS TO GO DOWN.

  • IT'S NOT GOING TO ZERO BECAUSE OF COURSE THERE IS VARIATION AMONG HUMAN POPULATION.

  • BUT IMPORTANTLY IN THE OVERESTIMATED IF WE SAMPLE SELECTIVELY.

  • ASK, WHAT PROPORTION OF SNP ARE SHARED AMONG POPULATIONS.

  • HERE WE'RE LOOKING AT COMMON SNPS FROM THE ENCODE DATABASE WHERE THE MINOR ALLELE FREQUENCY

  • IS GREATER THAN 5%. ABOUT 80% OF THE MINOR ALLELE ARE SHARED AMONG

  • THE THREE MAJOR CONTINENTAL POPULATIONS. FEWER THAN 1% ARE SEEN JUST IN ASIAN POPULATION

  • AND FEWER THAN 1% ARE RESTRICTED JUST TO EUROPEAN POPULATION.

  • ABOUT 6% ARE SPECIFIC TO AFRICAN POPULATION. MORE DIVERSITY INNERVE CAN AND DIVERSITY OUTSIDE

  • OF AFRICA BEING LARGELY SUBSET OF WHAT WE SEE IN AFRICA.

  • THIS PAPER JUST CAME OUT TWO, COMPLETE AFRICAN GENOMES.

  • YOU CAN SEE AGAIN COMPARING THOSE GENOMES, NOW LOOKING AT WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCES SO THIS

  • INCLUDES NOT JUST COMMON VARIANTS BUT ALSO RARE VARIANTS, WE CAN SEE THAT STILL AS WE'RE

  • COMPARING THE INDIVIDUALS THERE'S STILL A LOT OF SHARING OF VARIANTS AMONG THESE INDIVIDUALS

  • EVEN LOOKING AT RARE VARIANTS. NOT AS MUCH SHARING WHEN WE'RE LOOKING AT

  • COMMON, BECAUSE THE COMMON VARIANTS TEND TO BE OLDER MORE LIKELY TO BE SHARED.

  • BUT STILL INTERESTING LEVEL OF DNA SHARING AMONG THESE INDIVIDUALS FOR WHOM WE NOW HAVE

  • COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE. HOW DO WE ASSESS GENETIC DISTANCE DIFFERENCES

  • BETWEEN POPULATION. WE CAN DO SIMPLE GENETIC DISSTANCES.

  • WE DEFINE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POPULATIONS, CALL THEM I AND J BY THE DIFFERENCE IN ALLELE

  • FREQUENCIES. PIECE OF I AND PIECE OF J ARE THE ALLELE FREQUENCIES

  • IN THE TWO POPULATIONS. WE GO BACK TO THE FREQUENCIES I SHOWED YOU.

  • WE HAVE THREE. WE'RE LOOKING AT THREE SNPS.

  • IF WE WANT TO ASSESS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN POPULATIONS ONE AND TWO WE CAN SIMPLY FOR

  • THIS SNP, SNP ONE, SUBTRACT THE DIFFERENCE IN THEIR FREQUENCIES IN POPULATIONS 1 AND

  • 2 THAT'S VERY SIMPLE GENETIC DISTANCE ESTIMATE. THEN TO GET THE OVERALL DISTANCE BETWEEN POPULATIONS

  • 1 AND 2 WE WOULD JUST AVERAGE THIS DISTANCE WITH THE OTHER -- DISTANCES DERIVED FROM THE

  • OTHER TWO SNPS. IT'S REALLY PRETTY SIMPLE.

  • ON AVERAGE HOW DIFFERENT ARE THESE POPULATIONS IN TERMS OF THEIR ALLELE FREQUENCY F. THAT

  • WE CAN BUILD A NETWORK OF SIMILARITY AMONG POPULATIONS.

  • WE HAVE OUR THREE POPULATIONS, WE HAVE OUR DISTANCE.

  • WE CAN DRAW A NODE BETWEEN THOSE TWO POPULATIONS, THEN WE CAN TAKE THE AVERAGE OF SAYS SUBTRACT

  • THAT FROM THE FREQUENCY IN THE THIRD POPULATION THAT GIVES US ANOTHER NODE IN OUR NETWORK.

  • THAT THE HOW WE SHOW THE THEM IN TERMS OF ALLELE FREQUENCIES.

  • JUST BY LOOKING AT THEM ARE A LITTLE MORE SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER THAN THEY ARE TO POPULATION

  • THREE. THAT'S WHAT THE NETWORK DISPLAYS FOR US F.

  • WE DO THIS NOW FOR SERIES OF POPLY MORPHISMS NOW LOOKING AT ALU INSERTION POLYMORPHISMS.

  • THOSE ARE SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEAR ELEMENTS THAT INSERTED RECENTLY IN TO THE HUMAN GENOME

  • SOME PEOPLE WILL HAVE AN ALU AT SPECIFIC CHROMOSOME LOCATION, OTHERS DON'T.

  • THEN WE'RE ASSESS THE FREQUENCIES OF THOSE, IN THIS CASE 100ALU POLYMORPHISMS, WORK WE

  • DID A FEW YEARS AGO AND WE'RE LOOKING AT VARIOUS HUMAN POPULATION.

  • YOU SEE SOME INTERESTING PATTERNS HERE, FIRST OF ALL YOU SEE THAT POPULATION DO TEND TO

  • GROUP TOGETHER ACCORDING TO THEIR CONTINENT OF ORIGIN.

  • THIS ISN'T REALLY A SURPRISE, THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE COMMON HISTORY THERE IS A CORRELATION

  • BETWEEN ANCESTRY AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION. SO, WE CAN SEE POPULATIONS FROM MAJOR CONTINENTS,

  • ESSENTIALLY GROUPING TOGETHER. THE OTHER THING WE NOTICE HERE IS THAT THERE'S

  • A LOT MORE DIVERSITY AMONG THE AFRICAN POPULATION THAN IN THE REST OF THE WORLD.

  • WE'LL COME BACK TO THAT. IF I WOULD ASSESS THE STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

  • OF THESE RESULTS, THEE ARE BOOTSTRAP SUPPORT LEVELS THEY'RE VERY HIGH TELLING US THAT THESE

  • GROUPINGS HAVE SUBSTANTIAL STATISTICAL SUPPORT. A SIMILAR NETWORK ONLINE ONE INSERTION POLYMORPHISMS

  • WE SEE THE SAME PATTERN. NETWORK BASED ON A 250K ARRAY, AGAIN WE SEE

  • THAT SAME PATTERN. HERE ARE SERIES OF AFRICAN POPULATIONS, EUROPEAN

  • POPULATIONS, SERIES FROM SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA.

  • AND NEW WORLD OVER HERE IN YELLOW. SO THESE POPULATIONS DO TEND TO GROUP TOGETHER

  • ACCORDING TO THEIR GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION. NOW ADDED THE HDGP SAMPLES.

  • ANOTHER 40 POPULATIONS WE SEE AGAIN THE SAME PATTERN.

  • IT'S REALLY QUITE ROBUST. THIS IS ANOTHER ANALYSIS PUBLISHED IN "NATURE"

  • A COUPLE YEARS AGO BY ANOTHER GROUP, SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT SAMPLE OF POPULATIONS LOOKING BOTH

  • AT CNBS AND SNPS AND WE SEE THE SAME PATTERNS, WE ASSURING LEVEL OF CONSISTENCY ACROSS STUDIES.

  • IF WE PLOT HAPLOTIGHT HETEROZYGOCITY. WE'RE SAYING, HOW MUCH VARIATION IN HAPPEN

  • LAY TIGHT IS THERE ACROSS THE -- HAPLOTIGHT ACROSS THE WORLD AS IT RELATES IN DISANSWER

  • FROM EAST AFRICA. WHAT WE AUTO IS A HAPLOTIGHT DIVERSITY STEADY

  • DECLINES AS WE GO FURTHER AWAY FROM.

  • FIRST AROSE IN AFRICA THAT IS AN TOPICALLY MODERN HUMAN, PEOPLE THAT LOOK LIKE US AROSE

  • ROUGHLY 200,000 YEARS AGO STAYED IN AFRICA AT LEAST 100O YEARS, DEVELOPED -- 100,000

  • YEARS, DEVELOPED VARIATION THEN SMALL SUBSET WENT OUT TO COLONIZE THE REST OF THE WORLD.

  • AS A RESULT OF THAT VARIATION IN THE REST OF THE WORLD TENDS TO BE LESS THAN IN AFRICA

  • TENDS TO BE SUBSET OF WHAT WE SEE IN AFRICA. ALL VERY CONSISTENT WITH THE RECENT AFRICAN

  • ORIGIN OF OUR SPECIES AND A COMMON ORIGIN OF OUR SPECIES.

  • THIS IS A DIFFERENT TAKE ON HUMAN ORIGINS. I WAS IN THE SUPERMARKET A FEW YEARS AGO AND

  • MY EYES WERE CAUGHT BY THIS HEADLINE "ADAM AND EVE SKELETON HAD BEEN STOLEN" I WASN'T

  • AWARE THEY HAD BEEN STOLEN, BECAUSE I WAS PROMISED MORE AMAZING PHOTOS INSIDE, I HAD

  • TO BUY IT. WHAT I DISCOVERED, ALL THAT'S LEFT IS EVE'S

  • LEGS AND THE IDENTITY OF THE PERPETRATOR MAY HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED.

  • INEVITABLY IF WE'RE TALKING ABOUT DIFFERENCES AMONG POPULATIONS, AMONG INDIVIDUALS, THE

  • ISSUE OF RACE COMES UP. WHAT DOES GENETICS NOW TELL US ABOUT TRADITIONAL

  • CONCEPTS OF HUMAN RACE. I THINK WHAT YOU'LL SEE IS THAT OUR VIEW OF

  • RACE MUCH MORE COMPLEX AS WE BEGIN TO LOOK AT GENETIC DATA.

  • FIRST WE CAN ASK THE QUESTION, WHY DOES RACE EVEN MATTER?

  • WHY DOES IT KEEP COMING UP IN OUR DISCUSSION? WELL, CERTAINLY THE PREVALENCE OF MANY DISEASES

  • IS KNOWN TO VARY BY POPULATION AND ALONG LINES THAT CORRESPOND TO TRADITIONAL RACIAL DESIGNATIONS,

  • THINGS LIKE PROSTATE CANCER, HYPERTENSION. WE KNOW THAT SOME RELATIVELY COMMON DISEASE

  • PREDISPOSING VARIANTS VARY AMONG POPULATIONS. THINGS LIKE CLOTTING FACTOR V L,IDEN VARIANT.

  • SUBSTANTIALLY MORE COMMON AMONG EUROPEANS THAN AMONG OTHER INDIVIDUALS.

  • THERE'S EVIDENCE RESPONSE TO SOME DRUGS MAY VARY AMONG POPULATION.

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS MAY ON AVERAGE BE LESS RESPONSE SIEVE TO ACE INHIBITORS, BETA BLOCKERS AND

  • I EMPHASIZE "MAYBE" BECAUSE WE COME BACK TO THAT POINT AND WHAT THAT MEANS.

  • IN THE FORENSIC DATABASES THAT ARE COMMONLY USED BY THE FIB AND BY CRIME LABS THEY ARE

  • GROUPED ALONG TRADITIONAL, QUOTE, RACIAL, LINES.

  • THESE

  • DESIGNATIONS ARE USED COMMONLY IN MANY WAYS. THE QUESTION IS, WHAT CAN GENETICS TELL US

  • ABOUT THEIR VALIDITY. IT'S INTERESTING TO LOOK AT SOME COMMENTS

  • OVER THE LAST DECADE ON RACE. THERE WAS EDITORIAL IN THE "NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL"

  • THAT ASSERTED THAT RACE IS BIOLOGICALLY MEANINGLESS. IN A RESPONSE TO THE "NEW YORK TIMES" A PSYCHIATRIST

  • DR. SATEL RESPONDED "I AM A RACIALLY PROFILING DOCTOR."

  • DELIBERATELY PROVOCATIVE COMMENT, POINT WAS THAT SHE USES POPULATION AFFILIATION TO HELP

  • DECIDE DOSAGE AND DRUGS FOR HER PATIENTS. THE STATEMENT A FEW YEARS FROM THE AMERICAN

  • ANTHROPOLOGIC ASSOCIATION THAT "ANY TWO INDIVIDUALS WITHIN A PARTICULAR POPULATION ARE AS DIFFERENT

  • GENETICALLY AS ANY TWO PEOPLE SELECTED FROM ANY TWO POPULATIONS IN THE WORLD."

  • WE'LL SEE WHAT THE GENETIC DATA ACTUALLY DO TELL US.

  • WHEN THERE ARE SO MANY DIVERGENT OPINIONS ON AN ISSUE IT'S TIME TO LOOK AT DATA.

  • THE COVER OF "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" A FEW YEARS AGO ASKED, DOES RACE EXIST?

  • AND THIS IS THE PART THAT CAUGHT MY ATTENTION. SCIENCE HAS THE ANSWER.

  • ANY TIME AS A SCIENTIST I THINK WHEN WE SEE THAT "SCIENCE HAS THE ANSWER" WE GET SKEPTICAL.

  • LET'S LOOK AT THE DATA. WE TABULATE DNA SEQUENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS.

  • NOW INSTEAD OF LOOKING AT POPULATION WE LOOK AT INDIVIDUALS.

  • WE CAN PICK A FEW INDIVIDUALS WHOSE DNA SEQUENCE WE HAVE HYPOTHETICALLY OBTAINED.

  • WE'RE LUBING AT GEORGE BUSH, JOHN MCCAIN, HILLARY CLINTON I COULDN'T RESIST PUTTING

  • IN JOHN EDWARDS. I'M NOT SURE IF ANYONE WANTS TO SHARE DNA

  • WITH JOHN EDWARDS THESE DAYS BUT WE CAN COMPARE THEIR SEQUENCES.

  • SO AS WE'RE MAKING THESE DNA NETWORKS WHAT WE'RE INTERESTED IN IS SEQUENCE DIFFERENCE

  • AMONG OUR PAIRS OF INDIVIDUALS. IF WE COMPARE BUSH AND MCCAIN, WE SEE THAT

  • THERE ARE TWO SEQUENCE DIFFERENCES. WE PUT A TWO IN OUR MATRIX BETWEEN BUSH AND

  • MCCAIN F. WE COMPARE BUSH AND CLINTON WE SEE THAT THERE ARE FIVE DIFFERENCES.

  • WE PUT A FIVE HERE. BUSH AND EDWARDS, SIX.

  • EDWARDS AND MCCAIN, FOUR. SO FORTH.

  • WE MAKE A MATRIX OF DNA DIFFERENCES AMONG OUR PAIRS OF INDIVIDUALS.

  • FROM THAT WE CAN MAKE A DIAGRAM OR TREE THAT SHOWS HOW SIMILAR THEY ARE.

  • THIS IS HYPOTHETICAL. IT GIVES YOU DISPLAY THEN OF DISTANCES --

  • DIFFERENCES AMONG OUR PAIRS OF INDIVIDUALS. IF WE'RE LOOKING AT JUST A FEW PEOPLE WE CAN

  • EASILY LOOK AT THE MATRIX ITSELF AND SEE THE PATTERN.

  • BUT IMAGINE LOOKING AT HUNDREDS OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS THEN IT BECOMES MUCH MORE DIFFERENT

  • BY LOOKING AT THE MATRIX OF A THOUSAND BY A THOUSAND.

  • THESE DISPLAYS HELP US TO SEE THE PATTERN VERY EASILY.

  • STEVE WHO WORKS WITH US FEW YEARS AGO SAW THIS MATRIX IN THE "NEW YORK TIMES," MATRIX

  • OF PERCENT DISAGREEMENT AMONG THE NINE SUPREME COURT JUSTICES.

  • HE WAS LEARNING POPULATION GENETICS AT THIS TIME HE THOUGHT THIS WAS GOOD EX ARE SIGHS.

  • IF YOU LOOK AT THIS MATRIX YOU CAN SEE SOME PATTERNS, YOU CAN SEE FOR EXAMPLE THAT JUSTICES

  • THOMAS AND SCALIA HAVE ONLY 9% DISAGREEMENT. PRETTY SIMILAR.

  • BUT STILL IT'S NOT SO EASY TO DEDUCE THE WHOLE PATTERN UNTIL YOU MAKE A DIAGRAM.

  • A TREE THEN YOU CAN SEE THE PATTERN VERY EASILY. WE HAVE THE CONSERVATIVE WING OF THE COURTS

  • HERE. THE OTHER WING OF THE COURT OVER HERE SHOWING

  • UP VERY NICELY ON THIS DISPLAY. IF WE DO THE SAME THING AT AT DNA, WE'RE LOOKING