字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Saluton kaj bonvenon! Hello and welcome! This is lesson two Nouns, adjectives, plurals, and articles In this lesson I'm going to teach you about nouns, adjectives, plurals, and articles Before teaching you each of these in Esperanto I'm going to explain how they're used in English and I'll give you a few examples Then I'll teach you how it's used in Esperanto And then give you a few Esperanto examples Let's begin with nouns What is a noun? It's a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea An example of this is George Washington George Washington is a noun because he's a person The word "beach" is a noun because it's a place The word "happiness" is also a noun because it's an idea The word "ham" is a noun because it's a thing But what about "ham sandwich"? Which word is the noun? In this case, the word "sandwich" is the noun and the word "ham" Is just describing what kind of sandwich it is The word "ham" by itself would be a noun but in this case, "sandwich" is the noun Because if you're talking about a ham sandwich, you're talking about a sandwich, not ham Nouns in Esperanto are really easy In English, you can't tell if a word is a noun just by looking at it But you can in Esperanto! All nouns end in the letter -o This makes it really easy to recognize in Esperanto and easy to remember! One example is "tree" In Esperanto this uses the root word "arb-" Plus the -o ending. So a tree is "arbo" Another example is "dog" In Esperanto this uses the "hund-" root plus -o, so it's "hundo" The next example is "beach" In Esperanto this uses the root word "plaĝ-" plus the -o ending. So it's plaĝo The next part is about adjectives. What is an adjective? An adjective is any kind of describing word It expresses quality or characteristic And adjectives always describe and modify nouns My first example of an adjective is the word "shiny" It's an adjective because describes something shiny Another adjective is "wet" and another adjective is "cold" What about "funny fish"? Which word is a noun? Which word is an adjective? With "funny fish" the adjective is funny and the noun is fish because the thing we're talking about is a fish and "funny" is describing what kind of fish it is So how do adjectives work in Esperanto? In English you can't tell if a word is an adjective just by looking at it but in Esperanto you can! In Esperanto, all adjectives have the ending -a This makes it easy to recognize and easy to remember One example of this is "beautiful" "Beautiful" is and adjective because it can describe something that's beautiful In Esperanto we use the root word "bel-" plus the "-a" ending so this is "bela" Another example of an adjective is "big" In Esperanto we use the root word "grand-" plus the "-a" ending so we say "granda" One more example is "fast" For this we use the root word "rapid-" plus the "-a" ending so it's "rapida" In Esperanto we can also convert nouns into adjectives and vice versa Take the root word "dom-" With this you can make "domo" (house) (which is a noun) or you can make the word "doma" which means "domestic" (adjective) Another example of this is the root word "sal-" With this root you can make "salo" (salt) or you can make "sala" (salty) You might be wondering how you use adjectives in combination with nouns In English, the adjective comes before the noun it's describing but Esperanto is a lot more flexible! In Esperanto, adjectives can be before or after the noun they modify Both of these placements of the adjective are 100% grammatically correct An example of this is "sweet apple" You can say "dolĉa pomo" or "pomo dolĉa" either of these is correct To say big cat, you can say "granda kato" or "kato granda". The next section is plurals What are plurals? Plural just means more than one In English, plurals usually end in -s or -es But there are, of course, some exceptions to this rule Here's a few examples of plurals The plural of "pencil" is "pencils" The plural for "brush" is "brushes" The plural for "table" is "tables" Here are a few irregular examples the plural for "person" is "people" the plural for "goose" is "geese" and the plural for "mouse" is "mice" These don't follow the standard -s / -es rule in English But Esperanto is much simpler and much easier To make something plural in Esperanto, just add -j this can be done with nouns and adjectives But, if an adjective is describing a plural noun it must also be plural so nouns and adjectives have to match in their number Let's take the example, "chair" In Esperanto this is "seĝo" to make "chairs" we just add -j so we say "seĝoj" As I said before, adjectives can also be made plural "Fast car" is "rapida aŭto" in Esperanto But if we want to say "fast cars" we have to say "rapidaj aŭtoj" Notice that -j is on "rapida" and "aŭto" Because we're talking about multiple cars and all of these cars are fast so we say "rapidaj aŭtoj" For the next example, note that "kaj" means "and" so what about "granda hundo kaj kato"? Notice that there's no -j ending on "granda" but there are multiple nouns in the sentence so what is "granda" describing? It's describing the dog This translates to "big dog and cat" It's not saying that the cat is big It's only saying that the dog is big So what about "grandaj hundo kaj kato"? In this case, the -j ending is on "granda" so we know it's describing multiple things In this case, "grandaj hundo kaj kato" translates to "big dog and big cat" because "granda" is describing "dog" and "cat" The last section for this lesson is articles. What is an article? An article is a little word showing how specific a noun is In English there are two types of articles "definite" and "indefinite" The definite article in English is "the" The indefinite articles in English are "a" or "an" As an example, "a pen" It doesn't say which pen. It only says a pen in general. But when we use the definite article "the" and we say "the pen" You know we're talking about a specific pen Articles are extremely easy in Esperanto because there's only 1 article to remember This is the definite article "la", which never changes we actually don't use an indefinite article in Esperanto The first example with an article is "the leaf" In Esperanto this is "la folio" What about "the leaves"? The definite article never changes but you do need to make "leaves" plural so we say "la folioj" Remember, I said Esperanto has no indefinite article So how do we translate "a leaf"? We just say "folio" "Folio" can translate to "leaf" or "a leaf" and that all depends on the context To review, we learned that nouns have the ending -o we also learned that adjectives have the ending -a and we learned, that to make a noun or adjective plural you add -j and we also learned that the definite article in Esperanto is "la"