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  • Saluton kaj bonvenon!

  • Hello and welcome!

  • This is lesson two

  • Nouns, adjectives, plurals, and articles

  • In this lesson I'm going to teach you about

  • nouns, adjectives, plurals, and articles

  • Before teaching you each of these in Esperanto

  • I'm going to explain how they're used in English

  • and I'll give you a few examples

  • Then I'll teach you how it's used in Esperanto

  • And then give you a few Esperanto examples

  • Let's begin with nouns

  • What is a noun?

  • It's a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea

  • An example of this is George Washington

  • George Washington is a noun because he's a person

  • The word "beach" is a noun because it's a place

  • The word "happiness" is also a noun

  • because it's an idea

  • The word "ham" is a noun because it's a thing

  • But what about "ham sandwich"?

  • Which word is the noun?

  • In this case, the word "sandwich" is the noun

  • and the word "ham"

  • Is just describing what kind of sandwich it is

  • The word "ham" by itself would be a noun

  • but in this case, "sandwich" is the noun

  • Because if you're talking about a ham sandwich,

  • you're talking about a sandwich, not ham

  • Nouns in Esperanto are really easy

  • In English, you can't tell if a word is a noun

  • just by looking at it

  • But you can in Esperanto!

  • All nouns end in the letter -o

  • This makes it really easy to recognize in Esperanto

  • and easy to remember!

  • One example is "tree"

  • In Esperanto this uses the root word "arb-"

  • Plus the -o ending. So a tree is "arbo"

  • Another example is "dog"

  • In Esperanto this uses the "hund-" root

  • plus -o, so it's "hundo"

  • The next example is "beach"

  • In Esperanto this uses the root word "plaĝ-"

  • plus the -o ending. So it's plaĝo

  • The next part is about adjectives. What is an adjective?

  • An adjective is any kind of describing word

  • It expresses quality or characteristic

  • And adjectives always describe and modify nouns

  • My first example of an adjective is the word "shiny"

  • It's an adjective because describes something shiny

  • Another adjective is "wet"

  • and another adjective is "cold"

  • What about "funny fish"?

  • Which word is a noun? Which word is an adjective?

  • With "funny fish" the adjective is funny

  • and the noun is fish

  • because the thing we're talking about is a fish

  • and "funny" is describing what kind of fish it is

  • So how do adjectives work in Esperanto?

  • In English you can't tell if a word is an adjective

  • just by looking at it

  • but in Esperanto you can!

  • In Esperanto, all adjectives have the ending -a

  • This makes it easy to recognize and easy to remember

  • One example of this is "beautiful"

  • "Beautiful" is and adjective

  • because it can describe something that's beautiful

  • In Esperanto we use the root word "bel-"

  • plus the "-a" ending

  • so this is "bela"

  • Another example of an adjective is "big"

  • In Esperanto we use the root word "grand-"

  • plus the "-a" ending

  • so we say "granda"

  • One more example is "fast"

  • For this we use the root word "rapid-"

  • plus the "-a" ending

  • so it's "rapida"

  • In Esperanto we can also convert nouns into adjectives

  • and vice versa

  • Take the root word "dom-"

  • With this you can make "domo" (house)

  • (which is a noun)

  • or you can make the word "doma"

  • which means "domestic" (adjective)

  • Another example of this is the root word "sal-"

  • With this root you can make "salo" (salt)

  • or you can make "sala" (salty)

  • You might be wondering

  • how you use adjectives in combination with nouns

  • In English,

  • the adjective comes before the noun it's describing

  • but Esperanto is a lot more flexible!

  • In Esperanto,

  • adjectives can be before or after the noun they modify

  • Both of these placements of the adjective

  • are 100% grammatically correct

  • An example of this is "sweet apple"

  • You can say "dolĉa pomo" or "pomo dolĉa"

  • either of these is correct

  • To say big cat,

  • you can say "granda kato" or "kato granda".

  • The next section is plurals

  • What are plurals?

  • Plural just means more than one

  • In English, plurals usually end in -s or -es

  • But there are, of course, some exceptions to this rule

  • Here's a few examples of plurals

  • The plural of "pencil" is "pencils"

  • The plural for "brush" is "brushes"

  • The plural for "table" is "tables"

  • Here are a few irregular examples

  • the plural for "person" is "people"

  • the plural for "goose" is "geese"

  • and the plural for "mouse" is "mice"

  • These don't follow the standard -s / -es rule in English

  • But Esperanto is much simpler and much easier

  • To make something plural in Esperanto, just add -j

  • this can be done with nouns and adjectives

  • But, if an adjective is describing a plural noun

  • it must also be plural

  • so nouns and adjectives have to match in their number

  • Let's take the example, "chair"

  • In Esperanto this is "seĝo"

  • to make "chairs" we just add -j

  • so we say "seĝoj"

  • As I said before, adjectives can also be made plural

  • "Fast car" is "rapidato" in Esperanto

  • But if we want to say "fast cars"

  • we have to say "rapidajtoj"

  • Notice that -j is on "rapida" and "aŭto"

  • Because we're talking about multiple cars

  • and all of these cars are fast

  • so we say "rapidajtoj"

  • For the next example, note that "kaj" means "and"

  • so what about "granda hundo kaj kato"?

  • Notice that there's no -j ending on "granda"

  • but there are multiple nouns in the sentence

  • so what is "granda" describing?

  • It's describing the dog

  • This translates to "big dog and cat"

  • It's not saying that the cat is big

  • It's only saying that the dog is big

  • So what about "grandaj hundo kaj kato"?

  • In this case, the -j ending is on "granda"

  • so we know it's describing multiple things

  • In this case, "grandaj hundo kaj kato"

  • translates to "big dog and big cat"

  • because "granda" is describing "dog" and "cat"

  • The last section for this lesson is articles.

  • What is an article?

  • An article is a little word showing how specific a noun is

  • In English there are two types of articles

  • "definite" and "indefinite"

  • The definite article in English is "the"

  • The indefinite articles in English are "a" or "an"

  • As an example, "a pen"

  • It doesn't say which pen. It only says a pen in general.

  • But when we use the definite article "the"

  • and we say "the pen"

  • You know we're talking about a specific pen

  • Articles are extremely easy in Esperanto

  • because there's only 1 article to remember

  • This is the definite article "la", which never changes

  • we actually don't use an indefinite article in Esperanto

  • The first example with an article is "the leaf"

  • In Esperanto this is "la folio"

  • What about "the leaves"?

  • The definite article never changes

  • but you do need to make "leaves" plural

  • so we say "la folioj"

  • Remember, I said Esperanto has no indefinite article

  • So how do we translate "a leaf"?

  • We just say "folio"

  • "Folio" can translate to "leaf" or "a leaf"

  • and that all depends on the context

  • To review, we learned that nouns have the ending -o

  • we also learned that adjectives have the ending -a

  • and we learned, that to make a noun or adjective plural

  • you add -j

  • and we also learned

  • that the definite article in Esperanto is "la"

Saluton kaj bonvenon!

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B1 中級

エスペラントのレッスン2:名詞、形容詞、複数形、冠詞 (Esperanto lesson 2: Nouns, adjectives, plurals, and articles)

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    Hebe Ya に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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