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  • There is an ancient proverb that says

    翻訳: Aya Okayama 校正: Yoshifumi Yamada

  • it's very difficult to find a black cat in a dark room,


  • especially when there is no cat.

    「暗い部屋で黒猫を探すのは とても難しい

  • I find this a particularly apt description of science

    特に 猫が居ないなら なおさらだ」

  • and how science works --


  • bumbling around in a dark room, bumping into things,


  • trying to figure out what shape this might be,

    暗い部屋の中で 動いて 何かにぶつかれば

  • what that might be,


  • there are reports of a cat somewhere around,


  • they may not be reliable, they may be,


  • and so forth and so on.


  • Now I know this is different than the way most people


  • think about science.

    一般に考えられている科学とは 違っていますね

  • Science, we generally are told,


  • is a very well-ordered mechanism for


  • understanding the world,

    世界を理解したり 事実やデータを得るものであり

  • for gaining facts, for gaining data,


  • that it's rule-based,


  • that scientists use this thing called the scientific method


  • and we've been doing this for 14 generations or so now,

    科学的手法とは 一連の規則によって

  • and the scientific method is a set of rules


  • for getting hard, cold facts out of the data.


  • I'd like to tell you that's not the case.


  • So there's the scientific method,

    しかし これが実情です  (笑)

  • but what's really going on is this. (Laughter)

    <科学的手法 あるいは  無為の時間>

  • [The Scientific Method vs. Farting Around]

    そして こう続きます

  • And it's going on kind of like that.

    <科学的手法 あるいは  無為の時間を暗闇で過ごす> (笑)

  • [... in the dark] (Laughter)


  • So what is the difference, then,


  • between the way I believe science is pursued


  • and the way it seems to be perceived?


  • So this difference first came to me in some ways


  • in my dual role at Columbia University,


  • where I'm both a professor and run a laboratory in neuroscience

    私は 教授であり 同時に 神経科学の研究室を率いています

  • where we try to figure out how the brain works.


  • We do this by studying the sense of smell,


  • the sense of olfaction, and in the laboratory,

    つまり 嗅覚についてです

  • it's a great pleasure and fascinating work

    研究室においては それは大きな喜びであり 魅了させられる仕事です

  • and exciting to work with graduate students and post-docs


  • and think up cool experiments to understand how this

    嗅覚の働きや 脳の働きを理解するために 面白い実験を考え出すのは刺激的で

  • sense of smell works and how the brain might be working,

    率直に言って わくわくする仕事です

  • and, well, frankly, it's kind of exhilarating.


  • But at the same time, it's my responsibility

    学部生に大教室の講座で 脳について教えることも私の職務です

  • to teach a large course to undergraduates on the brain,

    脳は大きな題材であり 準備には時間がかかります

  • and that's a big subject,

    大変やりがいがありますし とても興味深いものでもあります

  • and it takes quite a while to organize that,

    しかし わくわくするものではないと 言わざるを得ません

  • and it's quite challenging and it's quite interesting,


  • but I have to say, it's not so exhilarating.

    私が教えた また いまだに教えているその講座は

  • So what was the difference?


  • Well, the course I was and am teaching

    その1 です   (笑)

  • is called Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience - I. (Laughs)

    25コマの講義で 様々な事実をたくさん含み

  • It's 25 lectures full of all sorts of facts,

    講義では この分厚い本を使います

  • it uses this giant book called "Principles of Neural Science"

    「神経科学の基礎」という本で 3人の有名な神経科学者の著書です

  • by three famous neuroscientists.


  • This book comes in at 1,414 pages,


  • it weighs a hefty seven and a half pounds.


  • Just to put that in some perspective,


  • that's the weight of two normal human brains.


  • (Laughter)

    この講座の終わる頃に 私は思い到りました

  • So I began to realize, by the end of this course,

    生徒達は 脳について知るべきことは

  • that the students maybe were getting the idea

    知り尽くすべきだと 受け止めたかもしれません

  • that we must know everything there is to know about the brain.


  • That's clearly not true.

    またこんなふうに 考えているようなのです

  • And they must also have this idea, I suppose,

    科学者は データを集め 事実を集めて

  • that what scientists do is collect data and collect facts


  • and stick them in these big books.

    実情は 違っています

  • And that's not really the case either.

    私が会議に出て 会議の一日が終わった後で

  • When I go to a meeting, after the meeting day is over

    バーで集まって ビールを飲んでいる時に 同業者とは

  • and we collect in the bar over a couple of beers with my colleagues,

    「知っていること」 の話は決してしません

  • we never talk about what we know.

    私達は 「知らないこと」 について語ります

  • We talk about what we don't know.

    未だ残っているすべきこと について語り

  • We talk about what still has to get done,

    実験室で何をすることが重要なのか について語るのです

  • what's so critical to get done in the lab.

    マリ・キュリー夫人が いみじくも

  • Indeed, this was, I think, best said by Marie Curie


  • who said that one never notices what has been done

    「人々は 成されたことは語らない

  • but only what remains to be done.


  • This was in a letter to her brother after obtaining

    これは 彼女が兄に宛てた手紙にありました

  • her second graduate degree, I should say.

    二つ目の学士号を取得した際に と付け加えておきましょう

  • I have to point out this has always been one of my favorite pictures of Marie Curie,

    ちなみに このキュリー夫人の写真が 気に入っています

  • because I am convinced that that glow behind her

    なぜなら 彼女の背後の光 これは写真効果ではないと確信しているからです  (笑)

  • is not a photographic effect. (Laughter)

    本物(放射能)なのです  (笑)

  • That's the real thing.

    確かに 彼女の論文は 今現在も

  • It is true that her papers are, to this day,


  • stored in a basement room in the Bibliothèque Française


  • in a concrete room that's lead-lined,

    研究者として これらのノートを閲覧したい場合は

  • and if you're a scholar and you want access to these notebooks,


  • you have to put on a full radiation hazmat suit,


  • so it's pretty scary business.

    ともかく これこそが 私達の講座が

  • Nonetheless, this is what I think we were leaving out


  • of our courses

    研究者としての社会との交流で見失っていた ものだと思います

  • and leaving out of the interaction that we have


  • with the public as scientists, the what-remains-to-be-done.


  • This is the stuff that's exhilarating and interesting.

    この 言うなれば 「無知」 これこそが

  • It is, if you will, the ignorance.


  • That's what was missing.


  • So I thought, well, maybe I should teach a course


  • on ignorance,


  • something I can finally excel at, perhaps, for example.

    そこで「無知」についての 講義を始めてみると

  • So I did start teaching this course on ignorance,


  • and it's been quite interesting


  • and I'd like to tell you to go to the website.

    あらゆる情報が ウェブで広く公開されています

  • You can find all sorts of information there. It's wide open.

    そして私にとって とても興味深い時間でもありました

  • And it's been really quite an interesting time for me

    他の科学者に会い 彼等が知らないことについて話してもらうのです

  • to meet up with other scientists who come in and talk


  • about what it is they don't know.

    もちろん 意図して少し挑発的に使っています

  • Now I use this word "ignorance," of course,

    なぜならば 「無知」には悪い意味合いも多く

  • to be at least in part intentionally provocative,


  • because ignorance has a lot of bad connotations


  • and I clearly don't mean any of those.

    未熟ゆえに事実や根拠やデータに無関心だとか ということではありません

  • So I don't mean stupidity, I don't mean a callow indifference

    無知な人は明らかに 未啓発で 注意不足

  • to fact or reason or data.

    知識も不足しています 本日ここにいらっしゃる皆様を除いたら

  • The ignorant are clearly unenlightened, unaware,

    選挙で選ばれる公職者に多いと 私は思うのです

  • uninformed, and present company today excepted,


  • often occupy elected offices, it seems to me.


  • That's another story, perhaps.

    この「無知」には 悪い意味あいは薄く

  • I mean a different kind of ignorance.

    人類全体の知識の不足として 認識されるものです

  • I mean a kind of ignorance that's less pejorative,

    知っているべきなのに 欠けている知識や

  • a kind of ignorance that comes from a communal gap in our knowledge,

    まだ知るに至らない知識や 予測もできない知識です

  • something that's just not there to be known


  • or isn't known well enough yet or we can't make predictions from,

    多分 マクスウェルの言葉でしょう

  • the kind of ignorance that's maybe best summed up


  • in a statement by James Clerk Maxwell,

    こう言いました 「無知が十分に認識されることは

  • perhaps the greatest physicist between Newton and Einstein,


  • who said, "Thoroughly conscious ignorance


  • is the prelude to every real advance in science."


  • I think it's a wonderful idea:


  • thoroughly conscious ignorance.

    でも まず先に片づけたいのは

  • So that's the kind of ignorance that I want to talk about today,

    「事実」について どう考えるかということ

  • but of course the first thing we have to clear up

    確かに 驚くべき速度で 科学知識は積み上がっています

  • is what are we going to do with all those facts?

    私達は皆 事実を積み上げたものが科学だ と感じています

  • So it is true that science piles up at an alarming rate.

    これは科学知識の蓄積モデル と呼ばれ

  • We all have this sense that science is this mountain of facts,


  • this accumulation model of science, as many have called it,


  • and it seems impregnable, it seems impossible.

    確かに 驚異的な速度で科学文献は膨れ上がっています

  • How can you ever know all of this?


  • And indeed, the scientific literature grows at an alarming rate.


  • In 2006, there were 1.3 million papers published.

    そして昨年は 150万の文献が出版されたと目されています

  • There's about a two-and-a-half-percent yearly growth rate,


  • and so last year we saw over one and a half million papers being published.


  • Divide that by the number of minutes in a year,


  • and you wind up with three new papers per minute.


  • So I've been up here a little over 10 minutes,

    さあもう行かなくちゃ 読みに行かなくちゃ

  • I've already lost three papers.

    さて どうすればいいのでしょう

  • I have to get out of here actually. I have to go read.

    実は科学者たちは この状況に対して

  • So what do we do about this? Well, the fact is


  • that what scientists do about it is a kind of a controlled neglect, if you will.

    ある意味 気にしないんです

  • We just don't worry about it, in a way.

    事実は重要です 科学者になるには

  • The facts are important. You have to know a lot of stuff

    多くの知識が必要です 間違いなく

  • to be a scientist. That's true.

    しかし 多く知っているだけでは 科学者になれません

  • But knowing a lot of stuff doesn't make you a scientist.

    法律家になるには 多くの知識が要ります

  • You need to know a lot of stuff to be a lawyer

    会計士も電気技師も大工も 同じです

  • or an accountant or an electrician or a carpenter.

    しかし 科学において 多くの知識が重要なのではありません

  • But in science, knowing a lot of stuff is not the point.

    多くの知識は そこから より多くの無知に

  • Knowing a lot of stuff is there to help you get


  • to more ignorance.


  • So knowledge is a big subject, but I would say

    私に言わせれば 「無知」はさらに大きな主題なのです

  • ignorance is a bigger one.

    そこまで考えますと 更に もう少し考えることになります

  • So this leads us to maybe think about, a little bit

    科学について よく用いられるモデルを検討して

  • about, some of the models of science that we tend to use,


  • and I'd like to disabuse you of some of them.

    最も一般的な誤解は 科学者とは

  • So one of them, a popular one, is that scientists


  • are patiently putting the pieces of a puzzle together


  • to reveal some grand scheme or another.

    これは明らかに違います まず パズルですが

  • This is clearly not true. For one, with puzzles,


  • the manufacturer has guaranteed that there's a solution.


  • We don't have any such guarantee.

    そもそも 製造者も良くわからないという人も多いです

  • Indeed, there are many of us who aren't so sure about the manufacturer.


  • (Laughter)


  • So I think the puzzle model doesn't work.


  • Another popular model is that science is busy unraveling things


  • the way you unravel the peels of an onion.

    物事の解明に励んでいる というものです

  • So peel by peel, you take away the layers of the onion


  • to get at some fundamental kernel of truth.


  • I don't think that's the way it works either.


  • Another one, a kind of popular one, is the iceberg idea,

    また 氷山もよくあるアイデアです

  • that we only see the tip of the iceberg but underneath


  • is where most of the iceberg is hidden.


  • But all of these models are based on the idea of a large body of facts


  • that we can somehow or another get completed.


  • We can chip away at this iceberg and figure out what it is,


  • or we could just wait for it to melt, I suppose, these days,

    氷山を削っていけば 理解が進みます

  • but one way or another we could get to the whole iceberg. Right?

    最近だと 待っているだけでも溶けてしまいます

  • Or make it manageable. But I don't think that's the case.

    でもいずれは氷山全体を終えられるのです ですよね?

  • I think what really happens in science

    管理していけるという考え これも違うと思います

  • is a model more like the magic well,

    私の考えでは 科学の実際は

  • where no matter how many buckets you take out,


  • there's always another bucket of water to be had,


  • or my particularly favorite one,


  • with the effect and everything, the ripples on a pond.


  • So if you think of knowledge being this ever-expanding ripple on a pond,

    結果や様々な面で 池の波紋 に例えたものです

  • the important thing to realize is that our ignorance,

    知識を どこまでも広がる池の波紋であると考えますと

  • the circumference of this knowledge, also grows with knowledge.

    私達の「無知」すなわち 知識の限界が

  • So the knowledge generates ignorance.

    知識とともに大きくなっていくという 大事なことに気づきます

  • This is really well said, I thought, by George Bernard Shaw.

    ですので 知識が「無知」を生むのです

  • This is actually part of a toast that he delivered

    バーナード・ショーの言葉が 大変うまい表現だと思います

  • to celebrate Einstein at a dinner celebrating Einstein's work,


  • in which he claims that science

    乾杯のあいさつとして アインシュタインをたたえる言葉の中で

  • just creates more questions than it answers. ["Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more."]


  • I find that kind of glorious, and I think he's precisely right,

    「科学は 答え以上に 多くの疑問をつくりだす」

  • plus it's a kind of job security.

    愉快な話です 彼はまさに正しいと思います

  • As it turns out, he kind of cribbed that

    さらに 仕事も安泰です (笑)

  • from the philosopher Immanuel Kant

    実は 哲学者のイマヌエル・カントが

  • who a hundred years earlier had come up with this idea


  • of question propagation, that every answer begets more questions.

    100年以上前に 疑問の伝搬 すなわち

  • I love that term, "question propagation,"

    全ての回答は更に疑問を引き起こすと 気付いていました

  • this idea of questions propagating out there.


  • So I'd say the model we want to take is not


  • that we start out kind of ignorant and we get some facts together


  • and then we gain knowledge.

    「無知」から始まり 事実を集めて

  • It's rather kind of the other way around, really.


  • What do we use this knowledge for?

    実際 むしろ逆方向なのです

  • What are we using this collection of facts for?

    私達は この知識というものを何に使うのでしょうか?

  • We're using it to make better ignorance,


  • to come up with, if you will, higher-quality ignorance.


  • Because, you know, there's low-quality ignorance

    いうなれば 高品質の「無知」を 得るためです

  • and there's high-quality ignorance. It's not all the same.

    なぜな 「無知」には低品質から

  • Scientists argue about this all the time.

    高品質まであり 一様ではありません

  • Sometimes we call them bull sessions.

    科学者は いつもこのことを議論しています

  • Sometimes we call them grant proposals.


  • But nonetheless, it's what the argument is about.


  • It's the ignorance. It's the what we don't know.

    いずれにしても 議論の的となっているもの ―

  • It's what makes a good question.

    それが「無知」です 私達が知らない何かなのです

  • So how do we think about these questions?


  • I'm going to show you a graph that shows up

    では 疑問はいかに生ずるのでしょう?

  • quite a bit on happy hour posters in various science departments.


  • This graph asks the relationship between what you know

    様々な科学部門の懇親会で 目にするポスターみたいなものです

  • and how much you know about it.

    このグラフが示す関係は あなたが知っていることと

  • So what you know, you can know anywhere from nothing to everything, of course,

    どの程度それを知っているか を表します

  • and how much you know about it can be anywhere

    何を知っているか 「皆無」から「すべて」まで幅があり

  • from a little to a lot.


  • So let's put a point on the graph. There's an undergraduate.


  • Doesn't know much but they have a lot of interest.

    ではプロットしていきましょう 学生はここです

  • They're interested in almost everything.

    知識は少ないが 興味の幅は広く

  • Now you look at a master's student, a little further along in their education,


  • and you see they know a bit more,

    修士の学生は 少し教育が進んで

  • but it's been narrowed somewhat.


  • And finally you get your Ph.D., where it turns out

    しかし その幅が狭まります

  • you know a tremendous amount about almost nothing. (Laughter)

    そして 博士号を取ると 驚異的に深く知るものの

  • What's really disturbing is the trend line that goes through that

    知っている対象は無きに等しいのです  (笑)

  • because, of course, when it dips below the zero axis, there,

    一番心配なのは 傾いた線の延長線上です

  • it gets into a negative area.

    なぜならば ゼロから更に下がれば 当然マイナスの領域です