Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Hi. Welcome back to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is going to be for those of

    こんにちは ようこそ に戻ってきました。アダムです。今日のレッスンは、そんな方のために

  • you who are going to take the TOEFL or IELTS test. So just so you understand, I will be


  • speaking at a more natural speed. It will be a little bit faster than some of you are


  • used to. But listen anyway, and watch. It's very good for listening practice, and it will


  • be helpful regardless. So today's lesson is specifically about note taking skills. I'm

    に関わらず、参考になると思います。そこで今日のレッスンでは 具体的にメモを取るスキルを学びます私は

  • going to concentrate on the TOEFL, but it is also very useful for the people taking


  • an IELTS test. Now, if you've seen my time management class for IELTS, you will realize


  • that in the listening section, it's very important to know how to take notes. You don't want


  • to waste time concentrating on spelling and writing full words while the recording is playing


  • because you have time at the end to transfer your answers. That's when you want to write


  • correctly spelled answers and everything. You want to just make sure during the listening


  • section that you write enough to know what the word is. We're going to get into that


  • a little bit later. What I want to concentrate on mostly, though, is the TOEFL test, okay?


  • Because in the TOEFL test, it is crucial that you know how to take notes. Why? You have


  • a listening section; you have a speaking section; you have a writing section, all of which have


  • a listening component. Remember; this is an integrated test. You're going to have to listen

    リスニングの要素です。覚えておいてください これは総合的なテストですこれは統合されたテストであることを覚えておいてください。

  • in each one of these sections. Okay?


  • In the listening section, what many people don't realize who haven't taken a test yet:


  • You don't see anything. Okay? You don't see the questions as you're listening to the lectures


  • or whatever you're listening to. So it's very, very important that you take notes as you're


  • listening so that when the questions do come, you have the information in front of you,


  • you know how to answer it, okay?


  • In the speaking section, you may be given a short conversation to listen to and then


  • be given a question, and you have to speak your answer. But if you don't remember what


  • they spoke about, then, you can't answer the question properly.


  • In the writing section, you have -- in Task 1, you have to compare a reading section with


  • a listening section. And then, you have to write an answer comparing the two. So if you


  • don't take notes during the listening component of Task 1, it's very difficult to write your


  • answer. Okay? So note taking skills -- very important throughout the TOEFL test.


  • So first of all, before we look at how to do it, let's look at what you need to concentrate


  • on as you're listening. Okay? Now, another thing to remember before I even start: This


  • takes practice. This is a skill that you have to sharpen, that you have to practice with

    は練習が必要です。これは研ぎ澄まさなければならない技術であり 練習が必要なのです

  • every day before you go out to take your test.


  • Okay. Now, the first mistake people make is they think -- they try to write down every

    わかったわ人が最初に犯す間違いは 書き留めようとすることです

  • word they hear. Impossible. Okay? Unless you're a stenographer -- that's a person who works


  • in court and writes down every word that the people in the courtroom are saying, lawyers,


  • judges, defendants, etc., witnesses -- you cannot write every word. Don't try. You don't


  • need to write every word. You need to concentrate on the details that are important, on the


  • information that is important.


  • Now, what you need to focus on are the big, general ideas. You need to understand generally


  • what is being spoken about, what is the topic, what is the subject. For example, is it science?

    何について話されているのか、何が話題なのか、何が主題なのか。例えば 科学なのか?

  • Is it history? Is it arts? You need to understand the general ideas because they're not going


  • to ask you very, very specific questions, right? And if they do, they're going to give


  • you some information. They're going to give you something to listen to again. Or they're


  • going to give you a very specific word.


  • So, details. Do you need to concentrate on every little detail? No. You'll be writing


  • all the time, not listening. Stick to the big ideas. But -- okay, sorry. Having said


  • that, technical words -- if they give you some scientific word or some technological


  • word, do you need to know it? No. They will give it to you in the question. You will see

    言葉の意味を知っている必要があるか?いいえ 質問の中で教えてくれますあなたは見るでしょう

  • it in the question, and you'll remember, "Oh, yeah. This is the technical word." There will

    質問の中でそれを覚えれば "ああ、そうなんだ。これは専門用語です"があるでしょう。

  • be technical words that even native speakers have no idea how to write or what they mean


  • or what they are. You don't need to either. What you need to listen to is the explanation


  • of what the technical word refers to or means because the word itself, they will give you


  • in the questions.


  • Headings, divisions, lists: These are the most important things you're listening for.


  • For example, you're listening to a lecture in a university classroom, and the professor


  • says, "So today, we're going to look at three reasons why fracking is bad." "Fracking" -- you

    "今日は水圧破砕が悪い3つの理由を 見ていきましょう "と言っています"破砕 "って

  • don't need to know. From a general idea -- you will have an idea what "fracking" means. But

    知る必要はありません一般的な考えから -- 「破砕」が何を意味するのかを知ることができるでしょうしかし

  • "fracking" spelling? You don't need to know. Specifically, the details of how fracking

    "フラッキング "のスペル?知る必要はありません具体的には、どのようにして

  • works, you don't need to know. What you do need to listen to are the three reasons. So


  • he's dividing the lecture into three topics. Make sure that you create a heading for each reason.


  • So the first reason is pollution. Write down "pollution". And then you can take notes under


  • it if you need to. The second reason is expense. Write down "expense" and whatever information


  • comes after that. The third reason -- whatever. You get the gist, I think. By the way, I hope


  • you know this word, "gist". "Gist" is the general idea. That's what you're listening for.

    "Gist "という言葉をご存知でしょうか?"要点 "とは一般的な考えですそれを聞いていると

  • If they're about to present a list, try to write down the list because this is


  • probably important, okay?


  • So in the listening section, don't sit there with your eyes closed and try to remember


  • everything you hear. You cannot do it. There will be quite a few questions for each listening section.


  • You need to make sure that you have the information on a piece of paper in front of you.


  • When you go to the TOEFL center, they will give you paper. They will give you a


  • pencil. That's what it is for: to take notes. Use it.


  • Next. In the speaking section, much shorter listening sections, but very important. What


  • are you listening for? You're listening for dates and times. For example, "Oh, yeah. Let's


  • meet next Tuesday." The "next Tuesday", you have to be careful; it's not "this Tuesday",

    "次の火曜日に会う""次の火曜日 "は注意が必要です。"今週の火曜日 "ではありません。

  • for example. Times, a.m., p.m. -- you don't need specifically 5:14; you need to understand

    を理解する必要があります。時間帯、午前、午後 -- 具体的には5:14ではなく、理解する必要があります。

  • afternoon, morning, evening, etc.


  • If people are making plans, make sure you understand what the plans are. Meet here,


  • do this with these people. That's the information you want to write down. If somebody agrees


  • or disagrees with something, write that down. If somebody makes an excuse -- "Do you want

    または何かに同意しない場合は、それを書き留めておきましょう。誰かが言い訳をする場合 - "あなたがしたいですか?

  • to come to my party next week?" "No, I can't. I have to take my mother shopping." Write


  • that down, "mother, shopping". You don't have to write, "He has to take his mother shopping."

    "母親、買い物 "と書いて"彼は母親を買い物に連れて行かなければならない" と書く必要はありません

  • No. Don't do that. "Mother, shopping" -- done.

    ダメよ やめて"お母さん 買い物" -- 終わった

  • Okay. Which goes with this? Accept, reject. Somebody makes an invitation. Does the person


  • accept or reject? He accepts and goes. If he rejects, make sure you know what the excuse


  • is. Okay? Because they'll ask you for that.


  • Purpose. There's going to be a meeting. Okay. Meeting -- not important. What is the meeting


  • about? Write that down. That is important. Or the reason -- reason and excuses: similar,


  • but a bit different. Reason for doing something, excuse for not doing something. Okay? So this


  • is only the listening and speaking. Let's look at the writing and section, what you


  • need to do there.


  • Okay. So now, let's look at the writing section. What are you doing in the writing section?


  • Remember that you have a short reading passage. You're given a little bit of time. You could


  • already start taking your notes as you're reading. But for some people, the reading


  • takes some time. Concentrate on the reading. Get the idea. What are the supporting, what


  • are the attacking, what is their argument. What examples are they using? Then, when you're


  • doing your listening, you're listening for -- first thing you're listening for: Are they

    リスニングをしている時には まず最初に何を聞くかを聞きます彼らは

  • supporting or attacking the reading? Okay? Because the question is going to ask you how


  • are they supporting or attacking the reading? So this is what you have to pay attention


  • for. If they are supporting, what point are they making? If they are attacking, what are


  • the points they're making? Again, big points, major points as compared to the reading.


  • Also, if the listening uses any names, like a company name or a person's name as an example


  • of supporting or attacking, try to write down that name. This will get you a lot of points


  • with the graders if they can see that you wrote down the name and used it in your short essay.


  • Examples. Any examples that they use to support or attack? Again, don't give me all the details,


  • but give me the general idea of the example, especially if the example was also used in


  • the reading. Okay? And then, use all of these in your little essay to show the differences.


  • So now you know what you're listening for. Now, the hard part is actually doing the note


  • taking, the writing things down. You're going to be learning how to use codes. Now, before


  • I go over some of these, it's very, very important that you understand that these are some examples


  • I'm giving you. You need to create your own codes that work for you. If I'm taking notes


  • on an essay -- on the listening section, for example -- I know what all these mean. These

    作文の上で -- 例えばリスニングのセクションで -- これらが何を意味しているのかがわかりますこれらの

  • are my codes. You might not know what this means, "w/". You may have to practice a little


  • while until you remember it. But make your own codes, something that you will remember

    覚えるまでの間しかし、あなた自身のコードを作る あなたが覚えているだろう何かを

  • when it's time to use it for the listening section, the speaking section, the writing


  • section.


  • So here's a little sample of codes. Some of these, you know from your texting on your


  • phone. You will never have to use LOL, OMG, BBF on the TOEFL, but good to know that they work.


  • I have a b; I have a 4 -- b4. I have an L; I have an 8 -- L8. Add an R -- L8R. Okay?

    I have a b; I have a 4 -- b4.I have an L; I have an 8 -- L8.Rを加えて L8Rいいかな?

  • Up -- go up, increase, raise, grow. Down -- go down, decrease, decelerate, slow down, whatever

    上に行く、上げる、上げる、成長する。Down -- 下がる、減る、減速する、遅くなる、何でもいい。

  • you need. Anything that shows going down, anything that shows going up.


  • 4 -- why did he go to the store? For milk -- 4 milk. Etc.

    4 -- なぜ彼は店に行ったのか?ミルクのために -- 4のミルク。などなど。

  • 2 -- could be "to", "too", or "two". Although very rarely will you have to actually worry

    2 -- "to"、"too"、"too"、"two "のいずれかになります。実際に心配しなければならないことはほとんどありませんが

  • about numbers because that's details.


  • Times -- five X as many. So there are five times as many people in that class as this

    5倍...5 X倍の数だそのクラスにはこのクラスの5倍の人数がいるんですね

  • class. So five X people. That's it. Class A, B, 5X -- that's it.


  • Minus, less. Plus, in addition. Up 2-- means maximum. Down 2 -- minimum. Approximately

    マイナス、マイナス。プラス、プラス、プラス上2は...最大を意味する。下2 -- 最小値を意味する。大体

  • -- this is my sign. It means not equal, but close to. So approximately. Greater than -- A

    -- これは私のサインだ等しくはないが、近いという意味だ。つまり、おおよそ。より大きい...

  • is more than B. Less than. Equal. With something. Without something.


  • H2O. What is "H2O"? You dink it every day. Water. Any little code that you can use to


  • help you write things quickly and remember things quickly, especially things like this


  • -- TOEFL for some reason loves science things. They love science lectures. They love science

    -- TOEFLはなぜか理系のものが好きです。彼らは科学の講義が大好きです彼らは科学が大好きです。

  • articles. Be very comfortable with those because you're going to see a lot of them.


  • Now, the next thing we're going to look at is abbreviations, which are just as important


  • as the codes. And again, something that you're going to have to practice and work on, but


  • I'll give you a little bit of a sample to get you started.


  • Okay. So now we get into the area where it's really more up to you to create your own master


  • list and practice it and study it so on test day, you can use it and not have any problems.


  • We're looking at abbreviations. An "abbreviation" means taking a word and squeezing it, making


  • it shorter. So the abbreviation for abbreviation is "abbr." Okay? Abbreviation. The most important

    を短くしたものです。略語の略語は "abbr "ですねいいですか?略語だ最も重要なのは

  • thing to remember is that you must remember what "abbr." means. If I see "abbr." In any

    覚えておくべきことは "abbr. "の意味を覚えておくことです"abbr.どのような

  • document, I will automatically understand this means "abbreviation". Some of these are


  • very common. Everybody used them. Some of them, you will have to make your own, and


  • I'll show you how to do that as well.


  • So for example, you have to be careful sometimes. You have to make yourself little changes,


  • like with a dot. So "inc." if I have only "inc" without a dot, I understand "increase".

    のように、ドットがあるように。だから "inc. "はドットがなくても "inc "だけあれば "増加 "は理解できます。

  • Okay? If I see "inc." with a dot, I understand "incorporate". Okay? Same with "co" without

    いいですか?"inc "に点がついていれば "incorporate "と理解できますいいですか?点なしの "co "も同じ

  • a dot is "company"; "co." with a dot -- "corporation". Or "cor." -- depends how you want to do it.

    ドットが付いた "co. "は "company"、ドットが付いた "co. "は "corporation "です。または "cor.-- とか、"cor. "とか。

  • Now, sometimes, you have some of them that look very similar, only one letter difference,


  • right? "App" for me means "application". "Appt" means "appointment". "Acct" means "account".

    っていうのは、「アプリ」のことですよね?"App "は "申請 "を意味します"Appt" は "アポイントメント""Acct" は "アカウント" を意味します

  • "Accm" means "accommodation". "Accp" means "accompany". "Act" -- "active" or "action".

    "Accm "は「宿泊」を意味する。"Accp "は「同行する」を意味する。"Act" -- "活動的な "または "行動 "を意味します。

  • You also have the shortened version of Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms., and Dr. Okay?


  • Sometimes, you can use the slash. Everything, nothing. Something, somewhere, anywhere, etc.


  • Whatever. "Etc." means "and so on like that". "Ie." means "in other words", so you

    何でもいいんですけどね。 "Etc. "は「そのように」という意味です。"Ie. "は「言い換えれば」という意味なので、あなたは

  • can use another way of saying the same thing. "Eg." means "example". So if you hear, for

    は同じことを別の言い方で使うことができます。"Eg. "は "例 "という意味ですですから、もしあなたが聞いたら、例えば

  • example, in the listening, you do "eg.", and then write the example. "n.b.", nota bene,

    例)リスニングでは、"eg. "をして、例文を書く。"n.b."、nota bene.

  • means "note well", means very important point. Keep that in mind. If somebody in the lecture


  • says "n.b." or "nota bene", make sure you write down what he or she says. President,

    は「n.b.」「nota bene」と言っていますが、その人が何を言っているのかをしっかりと書いておきましょう。社長さん。

  • chairman, etc.


  • Make your own list. If you're not sure how to do it, the easiest way is take any word;


  • take out all the vowels. So you have the word "responsible". How are you going to write


  • it as an abbreviation? I'll just write "rsp", responsible. But I would remember that "rsp"

    略語として?責任を持って "rsp "と書こうしかし、私は "rsp "を覚えているだろう

  • means "responsible". Or if you want to just put one -- sorry. "Resp" -- "resp" sounds

    責任がある」という意味です。あるいは、1つだけにしたい場合は--ごめんなさい。"Resp" -- "resp" は

  • like " responsible". Okay? So remember it that way.

    "責任 "のようなものだいいですか?そのように覚えておいて

  • Another thing you can use -- another way to remember these things and take notes is using

    あなたが使用できるもう一つのこと - これらのことを覚えてメモを取るための別の方法を使用しています。

  • acronyms. Acronyms are basically the initials of something. Each letter stands for something.


  • B.A., Bachelor of Arts. B.Sc, I forgot to write down. "Bachelor of Science". B.Ed, Bachelor

    B.A. 学士号B.Sc、書き忘れました。"Bachelor of Science"B.Ed、学士

  • of Education, and so on. Master of Arts. PhD. -- doctorate or post-graduate.

    教育学の芸術学修士。PhD.-- 博士号または大学院。

  • IBM -- International Business Machine, big company name. CIA -- Central Intelligent Agency,

    IBM -- インターナショナル・ビジネス・マシン、大企業名。CIA -- 中央知能機関。

  • in the States. IRS -- Internal Revenue Services, part of the tax company of the government.

    が米国で開催されました。IRS -- Internal Revenue Services(内国歳入庁)、政府の税金会社の一部。

  • a.m. -- morning. p.m. -- afternoon or evening. But notice here, "p.m." with dots and "PM"

    a.m.は午前中、p.m.は午後か夕方です。しかし、ここで注目してください。"p.m. "はドットで、"PM "は

  • without the dots or the dot is after. "p.m." -- afternoon, evening. "PM." -- "prime minister".

    ドットがない場合やドットが後になっている場合は"午後"-- 午後、夕方"PM""首相" -- "首相

  • Okay? So all these little things have a huge impact. But once you master how to do this


  • -- and believe me; it takes a lot of practice. Once you know how to do this, then you can

    -- そして私を信じてください、それは多くの練習が必要です。この方法を知ってしまえば、次にできるのは

  • go into the TOEFL test; your listening section becomes much easier, speaking section, writing


  • section. Everything is much easier because you have the information in front of you when


  • it's time to answer the questions. Okay?


  • Now, we're just going to do one more thing. I'm going to show you an example. We're going


  • to take a complicated sentence, sort of. I'm going to reduce it to code, and you'll see


  • more or less how it's done. It's not easy, but let's look at it.


  • Okay. So now we're going to look at an example. Now, first of all, keep in mind you're seeing


  • this; you're not hearing it -- two very different things. But I just wanted to give you an idea

    これと聞いていないのとでは 全く違うことだしかし、私はただ、あなたにアイデアを与えたかっただけです

  • of what I want you to practice doing, and you can of course do that on your own. Lots


  • of places to do it. I'll give you a couple examples. I'm going to redo the sentence,


  • and then I'm going to show you how this area means the same thing. Okay? You're not necessarily


  • going to have to write this much detail. You're not going to have to write down a whole sentence,


  • but just to show you how it works.


  • "With the advent of the information age, as well as widespread access to this information


  • via technological advances in communication, came a new threat for civil protection agencies to tackle."

    "通信の技術的進歩によって 市民保護機関の新たな脅威に 取り組むことになった"

  • Now, if you're taking the TOEFL, you should know what everything means. It should be not


  • -- "advent" means, like, think about "advance", something is progressing. "Tackle" means,

    -- "advent "は、"advance "を考えるように、何かが進んでいる、という意味です。"tackle "は、意味。

  • basically, "fight". "Threat", something that's dangerous to you or could be harmful to you.

    基本的には "戦う""脅威" 自分にとって危険なことや害になる可能性のあることを

  • But anything else, you really should know all these words if you're ready for the TOEFL.


  • Okay?


  • So what did I do here? The advent of information. The increase in -- or the going up, in this


  • case "advances" -- information technology, communication. New threat for cops -- civil

    事件の "進歩" --情報技術、通信。警官にとっての新たな脅威 -- 民事

  • protection agencies, what are they? They're cops, police. Cops to fight.


  • Everything here in a short little thing like this, this takes you ten seconds to write.


  • Meanwhile, you can continue listening and go on to other things. Okay?


  • Now, again, I will say this a thousand times if I have to. You need to practice this. This


  • is not easy to do quickly. You need to do this and continue listening at the same time.


  • In the speaking and writing sections especially, you're listening for specific things that


  • may play into the question that's coming. Right? You can practice all these. Now, if


  • you know, it's a good website. There are lots of lectures. CNN also. You、いいサイトだと思いますよ。講義がたくさんあります。CNNも。あなたの

  • can go get listening sections -- you can listen to news or you can listen to lectures, but


  • they also have transcripts, okay? So you can practice your note taking skills, listen two,

    書き写しもあるんだぞ?だからメモを取るスキルを練習することができます 2を聞いてください。

  • three, four times -- as many times as you need. Take notes. Then, look at the transcripts


  • and compare your notes to the transcripts. How close do you come? And believe me; the


  • more you do it, the better you'll get at it, just like anything else. It's a skill at the