Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Charles Darwin turned our world upside down.

  • His theory of evolution by natural selection

  • is one of the most profound and far-reaching ideas in human history.

  • It's also, alas, one of the most controversial.

  • Science now has the evidence that proves evolution is true.

  • Yet today, incredibly,

  • the opposition to Darwin is more fiercely vocal than ever -

  • denying plain facts in more and more elaborate ways.

  • You haven't seen it and I haven't seen it,

  • so please stop calling it science!

  • If we had gone from slime to human beings,

  • there'd be an overwhelming amount of evidence.

  • You are a teacher of science,

  • and you think that the Earth is less than 10,000 years old?

  • Yes, I do.

  • In this programme, the increasingly aggressive backlash.

  • "Right now, your destiny is all (BLEEP) up. (BLEEP) atheist!"

  • The battles that I think really matter...

  • We can't get into the business of knocking down kids' religions

  • and the religions of families.

  • Why not, actually?

  • Because...

  • ..and how the first man to understand evolution

  • himself wrestled with religious faith.

  • For Darwin, the problem was close to home -

  • his beloved wife was a devout Christian.

  • Today, we have public battles

  • as we confront the ranks of religious fundamentalists

  • eager to attack Darwin's great legacy,

  • which they just don't understand.

  • When I was a young boy, I looked to God to explain life.

  • And then I was introduced to Darwin and evolution by my father.

  • At first, I didn't get it.

  • It didn't seem possible to me that something so simple

  • could explain so much.

  • But then I learnt, thought about it a bit more

  • and then suddenly the penny dropped.

  • I really got it.

  • This incredibly simple theory

  • really was capable of explaining everything about life -

  • the beauty, the complexity, the diversity.

  • Then I thought, "Well, if science can explain something

  • "so apparently inexplicable as life,

  • "who knows what the limits might be

  • "on what science could explain more generally,

  • "without any recourse to the supernatural?"

  • At that moment, I became an atheist and I've never looked back.

  • Charles Darwin too changed his mind about this biggest of questions.

  • As a young man, during his voyage on the Beagle,

  • Darwin still believed that God

  • had created the world and everything in it.

  • But then he came across more and more evidence

  • that showed that life must have evolved.

  • Fossil ancestors, patterns of anatomical resemblance,

  • startling similarities in embryos

  • and the power of domestic breeding

  • all showed that life forms had changed over time.

  • Darwin believed there was an entirely natural explanation.

  • All animals vary, and in the competition of nature,

  • some variations are more successful

  • and more likely to reproduce than others,

  • passing their variation on.

  • Here in his study at Down House,

  • Darwin grasped that the religious story of creation

  • ran against the evidence of the natural world.

  • With evolution, God just wasn't part of the picture.

  • But there was a problem for Darwin. His wife, Emma, was religious

  • and the trouble began soon after they got married in 1839.

  • Emma wrote him a letter describing her deep faith.

  • But Darwin was no longer convinced there was a God.

  • He agonised over the letter and scribbled on it,

  • "When I am dead, know that many times

  • "I have kissed and cried over this."

  • Darwin never criticised religion directly in public.

  • I think he didn't want to hurt his wife's feelings.

  • Instead, he let his science do the talking.

  • He predicted science would bring about

  • a gradual illumination of minds.

  • Yet sadly today, it seems harder and harder for people to see the light.

  • Here, in the 21st century, people are retreating from reason,

  • trying to turn back the clock to a world before Darwin.

  • Genesis chapter one says everything that God made was very...?

  • None of you think kill or be killed, survival of the fittest,

  • nature red in tooth and claw is good.

  • Is the world really 6,000 years old?

  • D'you realise, up till Noah's day,

  • people lived to be nearly a thousand?

  • You don't die because you get old, you die because you're a sinner.

  • Up till Noah's day, there's no record of rain.

  • The Australian John Mackay

  • is a celebrity among evangelical Christians.

  • He's a creationist.

  • He believes in the literal truth of the Bible's creation story

  • and attacks evolution on the very crudest level.

  • I didn't grow up brainwashed with this.

  • It's the result of finishing my university course,

  • listening to students say,

  • "If evolution is true, why can't we see it happening?"

  • Third-year genetics question to the professor.

  • You take that seriously?

  • Oh, yeah! The professor, his answer,

  • I took even more seriously when he said,

  • "It happens so slowly you wouldn't expect to see it happening."

  • All of a sudden I thought, "Hang on!"

  • And that's true.

  • Good! In other words, what you don't see happening is not science,

  • it's unobservable, and you were the first person to admit it on PBS.

  • You're using the word "see"

  • as meaning "see within one lifetime".

  • If a phenomenon takes millions of years,

  • of course you won't see it.

  • Which means you have a faith position...

  • It does not mean...

  • ..and you need to admit it, as you weren't there.

  • It means you use other evidence than the evidence of one man's eyes.

  • You have to look...

  • Oh, sorry, Darwin was only 1859.

  • That's only 150 years ago almost, right?

  • And you haven't seen it and I haven't seen it,

  • so please stop calling it science.

  • Call what you're teaching philosophy or atheism

  • if you're gonna really be honest, and my time is up.

  • That's ridiculous, but anyway... Thank you very much and bye.

  • The refusal to believe in anything you can't see yourself is absurd.

  • Think about it.

  • I never saw Napoleon with my own eyes,

  • but that doesn't mean Napoleon didn't exist.

  • 'John Mackay can't see a cell or an atom

  • 'or weather systems on the other side of the world.

  • 'Does that mean they don't exist?'

  • Darwin didn't just trust his own eyes.

  • He checked his theory against evidence gathered

  • through extensive correspondence with naturalists across the world.

  • Mackay, it seems to me,

  • misunderstands science at a deep level.

  • Science is precisely not limited

  • by what we can see with our own eyes in one lifetime.

  • 'The whole wonderful endeavour of science

  • 'is to investigate phenomena beyond human experience,

  • 'from far-off galaxies to microscopic bacteria.'

  • 'from far-off galaxies to microscopic bacteria.'

  • 'Creationism's next best strategy is not flat denial

  • 'but to claim there is evidence against evolution

  • 'and that a genuine debate is yet to be had.

  • 'This is the creationists' favourite claim in America,

  • 'where the battle between faith and science really rages.'

  • Charles Darwin's struggle with religion was private.

  • 'Today, the battle has become public.

  • 'In my lifetime, opposition to evolution has grown,

  • 'particularly in the United States.'

  • 50 years ago, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik

  • and the space race began.

  • In response, the Americans made science priority number one.

  • The Government poured money into science education.

  • For the first time,

  • evolution was taught in every classroom in America.

  • But the religious fundamentalists hit back.

  • Tell me, Joe, how does he explain away God?

  • Well, why don't you come to the science club meeting?

  • Let him tell you.

  • 'To defend their Bible against the biologists,

  • 'they developed creation science,

  • 'a bizarre fusion of scientific language and religious doctrine

  • 'that they touted as a real alternative to evolution.'

  • Our eyes are amazing little instruments.

  • But they're only one part of the wondrous body that God has given us.

  • 'I worry that this is brainwashing, not science.

  • 'And I've felt compelled to take a stand.'

  • '40th floor.'

  • 'My book, The God Delusion, has put me firmly in the front line

  • 'in the battle between religion and reason.'

  • Can I sign in? Richard Dawkins.

  • Hello.

  • I'm one of your biggest fans.

  • Can I speak to the number one British intellectual?

  • I've read all your books.

  • That's very kind. Thank you.

  • Can I touch the hem of your gown?

  • LAUGHTER

  • 'The most powerful nation on Earth is polarised.

  • 'At this conference of atheists, I'm treated almost like a rock star.

  • 'But there are sections of American society

  • 'that would happily lynch me.'

  • Are you religious at all? I mean, do you pray?

  • No, of course not.

  • You're not religious at all?

  • Do I look religious?

  • "I hope you die slowly and you (BLEEP) burn in hell,

  • "you damn blasphemy.

  • "And you should realise that your entire life has been a delusion

  • "and that right now your destiny is all (BLEEP) up. (BLEEP) atheist!

  • "Go (BLEEP) yourself. You, sir, are an absolute ass.

  • "Your feigned intelligence is nothing more

  • "than the fart of God.

  • "You suck. Go burn in hell.

  • "Satan will enjoy torturing you. Christian living for God."

  • "There is a God. Her created all of us.

  • "The only one who is blinded are the unsaved and stubborn.

  • "Everything Darwin said is wrong and evolution has never been proven

  • "and nothing is evolving now. The Bible is the best book.

  • "Nothing even comes close to its accuracy

  • "and if you think God's judgment is bad

  • "the devil has worse in store for all unbelievers."

  • No punctuation at all in that one.

  • 'It doesn't scare me. I mean, I rather pity these people.'

  • They react in a way that sounds defensive

  • and, actually, really rather pathetic.

  • "Ha-ha, you (BLEEP) dumb-ass.

  • "I hope you get hit by a church van tonight and you die slowly."

  • (LAUGHS)

  • 'But there's also an entirely different kind of opposition -

  • 'slick in style and with a more polished line of attack.

  • 'Wendy Wright is president of Concerned Women for America.'

  • Wendy Wright, yeah.

  • 'She represents half a million evangelical women

  • 'concerned about issues ranging from lesbians on TV to poor old Darwin.'

  • Hi.

  • Hello. I'm here to see Wendy Wright.

  • I'll take you right in.

  • Thank you very much.

  • 'I worry that her organisation

  • 'would condemn American children to ignorance

  • 'by attacking sound, scientific evidence.'

  • Why is it so important to you

  • that people not believe in a creator?

  • That's not the point.

  • The point is that as a scientist,

  • I'm concerned that children in American schools

  • and in schools elsewhere

  • should be exposed to the evidence

  • and allowed to make up their minds about the evidence.

  • We completely agree. In fact, that's why the challenge in America,

  • whenever this debate comes up,

  • is teach the controversy, teach the evidence,

  • because as it is now, in many cases,

  • school children are only being taught about evolution,

  • they're not being taught about the frauds in evolution

  • and the lack of evidence in evolution.

  • So it's actually us who are arguing for teaching all the evidence,

  • not just the ones that are favourable to evolutionists.

  • You could say, "Which controversy?" I mean...

  • 'Teach the controversy. Sounds wonderful, doesn't it?

  • 'And it would be if it was a controversy

  • 'between equally valid points of view.

  • 'But it isn't.

  • 'I doubt if Wendy Wright would "teach the controversy"

  • 'about the Earth being flat

  • 'because the evidence for the Earth being a sphere is so massive.

  • 'There's also massive evidence in favour of evolution,

  • 'but she doesn't seem to want to know about it.'

  • Oh, really?

  • And actually, the way you frame this and your very closed mindedness

  • really is a very good example of the kind of censorship we see

  • within the scientific community that