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  • Hi. Welcome back to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a bit of a strange lesson.

    こんにちは ようこそ に戻ってきました。アダムです。今日のレッスンはちょっと変わったレッスンです。

  • I'm going to tell you something that you can't actually learn. Well, you can learn it, there's


  • just no rules for it. I'm talking about specifically some prefixes.


  • "Dis-", "un", "in/im-/il/ir-", "non-". Okay?

    "Dis-", "un", "in/im-/il/ir-", "non"。いいですか?

  • First of all, let's review a little bit. What is a prefix? A prefix is a little part of


  • a word that comes before the main word; can come before an adjective, before an adverb,


  • before a noun, before a verb. Anything that comes before a word, especially before a root


  • of a word. We're going to look at an example of that very soon.


  • So, I was asked specifically to talk about these prefixes. All of them basically mean "not".


  • Okay? They negate the word they are added to. Now, generally speaking, you can


  • find specific little subtle differences between all of them. For example, "dis" means more

    そのすべての間の具体的な微妙な違いを見つけることができます。例えば、"dis "はより多くのことを意味します。

  • like be apart of or away from, separate. "Un" means not or a reversal of something,

    離れているような、離れているような、分離しているような"Un "は、何かを離れている、または反転しているという意味です。

  • or not having something, a lack of something, a deprivation. And same with these guys, not,


  • reverse, opposite. "Non" is the most simple one. "Non" basically means not. Okay?

    逆、逆。"non "は一番シンプルなものです。"non "は基本的に "しない "という意味ですいいですか?

  • But, the problem is that most of these can go with many words, but there's no real rule about


  • which word takes which prefix. Okay? So, how do you learn which one to use in which situation?

    どの単語がどの接頭辞を取るかいいですか?どの状況でどの単語を使うかを どうやって学ぶの?

  • Well, I'll tell you after we look at a few examples. Okay?


  • So, again, all of these mean not. The only thing you have to worry about the most is


  • the actual word that is being connected to a prefix. Okay? Concentrate on the root or


  • the word itself before you concentrate on which prefix to join to it.


  • Now, you will see that some words will take both prefixes, and be totally okay.


  • The problem is that their meanings are completely different. So, "to dislike", this is a verb,


  • "to dislike", it could also be a noun. "I have a strong dislike for certain vegetables", for example.

    "to dislike "は名詞にもなります。"I have a strong dislike for certain vegetables "などです。

  • But "to dislike" means to not like. Now, if you say: "I don't like Pizza."

    しかし、「嫌いになる」というのは「好きにならない」という意味です。今 あなたが言ったとします"ピザは好きじゃない"

  • And you say: "I dislike Pizza." These are a little bit different. Right? "Don't like"


  • or "not like" means you don't have a good feeling towards. But "dislike" means you actually


  • have a bad feeling towards. Right? So, this is a little bit more active. You're away from liking it.


  • You're actually having a bad feeling for it. "Unlike" has absolutely no connection


  • to "dislike". "Unlike" means not similar to. This is the preposition "like", "A" is like "B".

    を "嫌い "にします。"like "は「似ていない」という意味です。これは前置詞 "like "で、"A "は "B "に似ているという意味です。

  • This is the verb "like", means to have a good feeling toward. So, concentrate on


  • the word you have. You have the verb, you have the preposition, and then decide which


  • prefix you want to join to it.


  • So, here, I have a few examples of words that can take two prefixes and have different meanings.


  • So, for example: "discover" and "uncover" are two completely different verbs. "To discover"

    だから、例えば"discover "と "uncover "は全く違う動詞です。"発見する"

  • means to find by accident. You're walking along the beach, and you discover the skull,

    偶然に発見することを意味します。浜辺を歩いていると 頭蓋骨を発見します

  • the bone... Head bone of a dinosaur. You didn't look for it. You just found it. Okay?


  • You discovered it. So, it was hidden by nature, by time, and then you took away the cover


  • and there it is, the skull. "Uncover", on the other hand, means you were looking for

    そこに頭蓋骨がある"発見する "というのは、一方で、あなたが探していたのは

  • something and you found it.


  • So, you're a... I'm a reporter. I work for a major newspaper, and I think that this particular


  • politician is corrupt; he's lying to the people, he's stealing their money. So, I investigate.

    政治家は腐敗しています。彼は国民に嘘をついています。彼らのお金を盗んでいます。だから 私は調査します

  • And after my investigation, I uncover certain facts that will help the police put him in


  • jail. Not, not, not covered, not covered, means not hidden, but this one by accident,


  • time, nature hit it, I, by accident discovered it; "uncover" means I looked for, I found.

    時、自然がそれにぶつかった、私は、偶然にもそれを発見した。"uncover "は、私が探した、見つけたという意味です。

  • This one, or these two, I should say: "disinterested" and "uninterested". These are always mixed

    これというか、この二つというべきか。"無関心 "と "無関心 "ですこれらはいつも混ざっています

  • up. You cannot use these two interchangeably; you have to use one or the other. I'll start

    を上にしてください。この2つを交互に使うことはできません どちらか一方を使わなければなりません私が始めようと思うのは

  • with "uninterested". ''Uninterested'' means indifferent, don't care. It's boring. I'm uninterested.

    "uninterested "で''uninterested''は無関心、気にしないという意味です。つまらない」という意味です。私はuninterestedです。

  • I don't want to know. Leave me alone. "Disinterested" means impartial, means you're not... You don't

    知りたくないほっといてくれ"無関心 "は公平という意味で、あなたは...あなたは

  • have a reason to take one side or the other. Okay? So, again, I'm the reporter. I have


  • nothing to gain or lose by finding out information about this politician. I am a disinterested


  • party. I am objective. Okay? I am not involved in the situation. I'm just reporting the facts.


  • Here, I don't care; here, I'm not part of the situation.


  • Now, you also think: "Well, these two are kind of weird. There are two different words here."

    "この2つはちょっと変だな "と思ったでしょ?"ここには2つの異なる言葉がある"

  • Right? But you have a "discomfort", you are "uncomfortable". That's a little strange.


  • This is a noun, this is an adjective. You go to the doctor, you complain of a discomfort in your side.


  • But if you sit and somebody left a pen on your chair, oh, a little uncomfortable.


  • You're not... You know, you want to get up and see what's going on there. A discomfort


  • is like a real thing, probably inside. Uncomfortable, you can fix somehow.


  • "Disable", okay? We're going to look at the verb, "disable". Means make not able. Take

    "無効にする "でいいですか?"disable "という動詞を見ていきましょう。意味は「できないようにする」。取る

  • away the ability of something. So, you have a machine running. You think: "Oh, it's a


  • little bit dangerous." You don't want anybody to use it, so you disable it. You disconnect

    "ちょっと危険"誰にも使われたくないから 無効にするんだあなたはそれを無効にします。

  • the fuse. Now, nobody can come and use this machine. It has been disabled. We say about


  • a person if he or she is disabled, usually they're in a wheelchair, they had an accident


  • or they were born with a problem. They are not able. "Unable" means can't. I am unable

    あるいは生まれつき問題を抱えていて彼らはできないのです。"unable "はできないという意味です私はできない

  • to help you because I just don't know. Okay? "Unable", "disable".

    あなたを助けるために、私はただ知らないから。いいですか?"不能" "無効"

  • We're going to come back to this bottom one, here. So, that's a few things. Oh, a couple


  • more. "Disorganized", "unorganized". Usually, you would say about a person: "He or she is

    の方が多いです。"乱れている" "整理されていない"通常は人について言うことですが"彼または彼女は

  • disorganized." He has things everywhere or she has things everywhere; it's a big mess.

    "乱れている"彼は至る所に物を持っているか 彼女は至る所に物を持っています; それは大きな混乱です。

  • But the office or the room of this person is unorganized. So, we talk about an organization,


  • or a company, or an association, or a place that is unorganized. We talk about a person


  • being disorganized. I'm going to come back to these.


  • So, now, we know, "dis", "un", depends on the word you're using. Same goes for these

    さてさて "dis" "un "は使う言葉にもよりますがこれらも同じように

  • ones. Right? For example, "non", "non", there are not that many words. You have a "nonpayment".


  • Okay? You bought something, it's non-refundable. Keep in mind sometimes you will have a hyphen,


  • sometimes you will not. How do you know? Check the dictionary. Again, not really any rule


  • here. Some dictionaries, like American dictionaries will put like a hyphen, British ones won't.


  • Depends what you need, that's what you'll use.


  • "In", "im", same thing, especially with "il", "ir", they're all exact same. They also mean

    "In" "im "も同じです 特に "il" "ir "も全く同じですまた、これらの意味は

  • not, or opposite, or lack. We usually use "im" with words that begin with a "b", "m",


  • or a "p". Now, the thing about "in" or "im", you have to be careful about it. They don't

    とか「プ」とか。さて、"in "や "im "についてですが、気をつけなければならないことがあります。彼らは

  • only mean not; they have other meanings. For example, it could mean to put something into,


  • or show direction towards the inside of something. Right?


  • So, for example, "immigrate" means migrate into a country. So, come... Or come into a

    だから例えば "immigrate "は ある国に移住するという意味ですだから、来る...または、入ってくる

  • country, I should say, sorry. "Migrate" move, "im", into. Move into a country. "Inflame",

    この国に、と言うべきかな、ごめんなさい"Migrate" move, "im" into.国に移動する"インフレイム"

  • so this is another use of the prefix "in". Means to cause, to be, or to make. Right?


  • So, you inflame, you make it... The flame, you make it more of a flame, you intensify it.


  • Sorry, intensify. So, there's a... Somebody's having a fight, you want to inflame it. You


  • give them both reasons to fight more. You inflame the product, the situation. So, "in"

    両者にもっと戦う理由を与えるあなたは製品や状況を 煽っているのですだから、"で"

  • and "im" not only mean "not", they also mean "toward" or "to cause". So, be careful.

    と "im "は "not "だけでなく、"to towards "や "to cause "という意味もあります。なので、気をつけましょう。

  • "Il" and "ir" we use with words that begin with "l" or "r". For example, "illogical",

    "il "や "ir "は "l "や "r "で始まる単語と一緒に使います。例えば、「非論理的」です。

  • "irrelevant". Going back to "im", "b", "m", "p". "Imbalanced", "immaterial", "impossible".

    "無関係""im"、"b"、"m"、"p "に戻る。"不均衡" "非重要" "不可能"

  • I'm using adjectives. You're not limited to adjectives. There could be other things. For


  • example, "immigration" is a noun. "Immigrate" is a verb. I'm still using the "im". So be

    例えば、"immigration "は名詞です。"Immigrate "は動詞です。まだ "im "を使っていますであるように

  • careful about these. And the "non", "nonpayment", "non-refundable".


  • Now, there is another situation. "Mis", I know this is not on my list, this is a different


  • prefix. But many people think that "mis" means "not". It doesn't. "Mis" means wrongly, in

    という接頭語を使っています。しかし、多くの人は「ミス」は「ない」という意味だと思っています。そんなことはありません。"mis "は間違った意味で

  • a wrong way. So, "inappropriate" means not appropriate, not proper, not correct. "Misapproriate",

    誤った方法です。つまり、"inappropriate "は、適切ではない、適切ではない、正しくないという意味です。"misapproriate "は

  • "inappropriate", "misappropriate", this word and this word are two different words. This

    "不適切" "不適切" この言葉とこの言葉は別の言葉ですこの

  • is an adjective, means correct or proper. "Appropriate" is a verb, means take. If you

    は形容詞で、正しい、適切という意味です。"適切な "は動詞で 取るという意味ですの場合は

  • misappropriate, you take something in a dishonest way, in a wrong way. Okay? So, be very careful

    "不適切な方法で" "不正な方法で" "間違った方法で" "何かを取るいいですか?だから、非常に注意してください

  • about "mis". And make sure you understand which word you are using before you add your prefix.


  • Now, we're getting to the gist of the lesson, we're getting to the main point. How do you


  • know, and what if you don't know which prefix to use? So, for example, "unsecure", "insecure".

    を知っていて どの接頭辞を使えばいいのかわからない場合はどうするのでしょうか?だから例えば「安全ではない」「安全ではない」とか。

  • "Insecure" generally, we talk about a person... A person's attitude toward him or herself.

    "Insecure" 一般的には、人のことを話します...その人の自分に対する態度のこと。

  • If someone is insecure, means they lack confidence; they're not confident. They don't have the


  • self-security. "Unsecure" means not safe. Now, if you're talking about a computer that

    "自己安全"安全でない "というのは安全ではないという意味ですさて、パソコンの話をしていると

  • doesn't have an anti-virus, it's unsecure. It doesn't have a firewall, it's unsecure.


  • If you attach a picture to the wall... For example, this, this whiteboard is secured


  • to the wall. If I take out the screws, it might fall over, it would be unsecure.


  • But many people feel this word is uncomfortable, it just doesn't sound right, "unsecure". If


  • you're not sure, use the two words. Say: "Not secure". If this word, "unsecure" doesn't

    よくわからないときは この2つの言葉を使いましょう。Say: 「安全ではない」と言いましょう。この言葉、「安全ではない」では

  • feel correct, don't use it. Use "not secure". Tell me the meaning of this. Okay? Don't worry


  • about the word itself if you don't like it.


  • Which, brings us, again, to the main point: how do you know? Well, you have to feel.

    それがまた本題だ どうやって知るのか?感じるんだ

  • You have to feel the language, you have to feel which word sounds correct or not. Now, this


  • is especially important in writing. In spoken English, if you say: "Dispossible", people

    は特にライティングで重要です。話し言葉の英語では、あなたが言うと"Dispossible "と言うと、人々は

  • will look at you a little bit strange, but they will understand what you're saying. In


  • writing, they will look at it and try to figure out what's going on; they'll get confused.


  • In writing, it's very important to use the right word, the correct word. You have to feel it.


  • Now, how do you feel which word is correct and which word is not? Read. Read a lot, a


  • lot, a lot, a lot. This is where you get to feel the language. For example, if you read


  • 100 books by 100 different authors, all of them will use "imbalanced". Nobody will use


  • "disbalanced". Some might use "unbalanced". Okay? So, you're free to use one or the other.

    "disbalanced "を"アンバランス "を使う人もいるかもしれないいいですか?どちらを使うかは自由だが

  • Okay? "Immaterial", everybody will use "immaterial" or "not material". "Immaterial", by the way,

    いいですか?"非物質的 "は誰もが "非物質的 "か "非物質的でない "を使います"Immaterial "ちなみに

  • means not important, not relevant. Same as "irrelevant", "immaterial", synonyms. Okay?

    重要ではない、関連性がないという意味。"無関係 "や "重要でない "と同義語だいいですか?

  • So, now, personally, I recommend reading novels. Why? Because the authors of novels, technically,


  • should have a very strong command of grammar. They spend a lot of time thinking about every


  • word they use, and they have editors, who also check every word they use. So, novels

    彼らが使う言葉には編集者がいて 彼らが使う言葉も全てチェックしていますだから、小説

  • get you... Really play with the language and really help you get this feel for the language.


  • But until you get that feeling, until that time comes, use a dictionary. Like anything


  • else, if you're not sure, check. The dictionary says like this, use it like that. If you're

    でなければ、わからない場合は調べてみてください。辞書にはこう書いてあります このように使いますもし、あなたが

  • in the middle of the test and you can't think of... You don't have a dictionary, you have


  • to write something, give it your best guess and hope for the best. But eventually, you

    何かを書くときは 推測をして期待して書きますしかし、最終的には

  • will know just by looking at it if it's right or wrong.


  • Okay, if you go to, I put a quiz there that will test your knowledge of

    さて、あなたが に行けば、私はそこにあなたの知識をテストするクイズを置きます。

  • some of these words with their prefixes. A couple little surprise ones for you as well.


  • Also, don't forget to subscribe to my channel on YouTube. And ask any questions you'd like,


  • and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. Thanks.


Hi. Welcome back to I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a bit of a strange lesson.

こんにちは ようこそ に戻ってきました。アダムです。今日のレッスンはちょっと変わったレッスンです。

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