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It is a war plane light years ahead in its design.
A supersonic killing machine built to become the stealth fighter of the 21st century,
packing a deadly array of state of the art missile systems.
It excels at both close-in dog fighting and precision strike ground attacks.
Invisible to enemy RADAR, it can intercept and strike any target without warning.
America's newest super weapon,
the F-22 Raptor next on Modern Marvels.
1981, in his first press conference as president of the United States.
Ronald Wilson Reagan offered a deal to the Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
If Soviet's SS-20 missiles aimed at Western Europe were removed,
America would not deploy its Pershing II cruise missiles to counter the threat.
Throughout the 1960's and 70's, the Soviets developed
different missiles to attack in different altitude bags.
You couldn't fly under the missile threat.
You couldn't fly over the missile threat.
You had to deal with the missile threat.
One way to do that is to make suppression of enemy air defenses,
that is, destroying the missile sites and the radars, the most important mission for the air force.
By the 1970's, air dominance had re-emerged as a top priority.
And the US Air Force is committed to building its first pure air superiority fighter.
An aircraft that would eventually become the F-15 Eagle.
But just as F-15s became operational in 1978,
alarming new evidence suggested that the new fighter's superiority might only be temporary.
US reconnaissance satellites passing over a Soviet flight test center north of Moscow
discovered new Soviet fighters being tested.
One was the agile fighter, the Mikoyan MiG-29.
But the other king(?) as a huge shock to western analysts,
it was bigger than the F-15 and far bigger than any previous Soviet-built fighter,
the Sukhoi T-10 prototype.
At that time, the Soviet Union initiated
some very aggressive programs to come up with counters
and both Mikoyan and Sukhoi, both of design bureaus, initiated new aircraft development efforts.
And it appeared that they were (?)attractive with(?) field some very advanced fighters.
If the MiG-29 had concerned the American military establishment,
the existence of the Sukhoi T-10 set alarm bells ringing.
These are very good aircraft,
they're aircraft that play in the same league
as some of the top NATO aircraft like Phantom, and ultimately like F-15.
The goal is world peace ...
Just weeks into his first term, America's 40th president
increased US defense spending by 32.5 billion dollars,
and began the re-armament of the United States on a colossal scale.
In 1981, the Cold War was getting very warm.
As Reagan ingression(?) and squared off,
the US Air Force concluded that it urgently needed the replacement for its F-15,
an advanced tactical fighter, or ATF, that would have no equal.
As American planners started to develop a concept of air and land battle to fight WWIII,
the US Air Force starts to think about the kind of a equipment it wants to have
when it comes time to fight a war.
At that time, in the secret of black world, the advanced military aviation development,
one technology had emerged at the forefront,
stealth.
During that period, the late 1970's of course,
and what we call the black world, the alias in the world of secret programs,
there was a great effort going on to come up with counters to these new Soviet weapon systems
that could enable us to knock out their SAM system
and that of course uh... led to the development of the F-117.
Analysis of air to air combat in Vietnam, called the Red Baron study,
had kicked start the race for stealth
An operational analysis study showed that in Vietnam
that most aircraft were killed by other aircraft that they hadn't seen.
So from this you get the idea that if the aircraft doesn't see it, it has a tremendous advantage.
Air combat data from WWII and Korea reinforced it's need for invisibility.
So from this, in a process of operational analysis, the US Air Force learns
that what you really need to do is be invisible to the enemy.
And that means that
an aircraft is designed to be as near as possible invisible to an enemy fighter aircraft.
Its geometry is designed to give it a very low profile as to make it very invisible
to an oncoming fighter aircraft using high-frequency fighter aircraft RADAR.
The principle of stealth technology is to literally make an airplane invisible to the enemy.
An aircraft's shape must reflect incoming radio waves
away from the enemy radar rather than towards it
To further obscure the war plane's visibility,
an aircraft is being covered in materials that absorb radar signals
In turn, this reduces its visibility on a radar screen.
Leading the way in stealth technology was Lockheed Martin's Skunk works.
In the late 1970's, the stealth wasn't widely known outside of a few companies.
in the ability to integrate stealth technology, shaping for stealth and materials.
It was really only well known in 2 companies that was Lockheed and Northrop.
In 1977, amid unprecedented security,
Lockheed flew a prototype of the world's first stealth fighter.
And by the 1980's, during Operation Just Cause,
its F-117 helped to destroy general Noriega's regime in Panama.
Now the US Air Force decided that any new fighter must incorporate stealth technology
and identified 2 other areas in which a future air superiority fighter should excel.
Well, at that stage of the game, it was clear
that the Air Force wanted the stealthy fighter.
It was also clear that they wanted uh...an airplane
that was super cruise, in other words,
supersonicly without lighting off the after burners,
and they didn't want to sacrifice any of the classic fighter maneuverability
So they want the fighter that, besides all the new technology,
would maneuver as well or better than the F-15.
In October 1982, representatives from aircraft manufacturers met with the US Air Force,
and began to identify the specific must-haves for the new fighter.
It must be a supersonic cruise aircraft with a combat radius of 7 to 900 miles
with reduced observables if possible.
The aircraft would have to be able to operate on a 2,000-foot runway,
and must be easier to maintain than a F-15.
The challenge was issued.
Now it was up to the finest aviation manufacturers in the world to respond.
The Advanced Tactical Fighter Program was about to begin,
and the Raptor, America's fifth-generation fighter, was about to be hatched.
The F/A-22 Raptor is so stealthy, it appears the size of a bumblebee when detected by radar,
even though it's more than 62 feet long with a wingspan of 44 feet.
By 1983, U.S.-Soviet relations had reached a new low.
Following Leonid Brezhnev's death, the politburo, now controlled by ex-KGB boss Yuri Andropov,
was labeled by Reagan as the focus of evil in the modern world.
Continuing his policy of rearmament,
Reagan announced plans for the Strategic Defense Initiative,
better known as Star Wars.
Moscow reacted furiously.
[speaking Russian]
That August, when Korean Airlines flight 007, on its way to Seoul from New York,
strayed several hundred mile off course into Soviet airspace, Russia acted.
A fighter was sent up, and the civilian airliner with 269 people on board was shot down.
The shooting down of KAL 007 sent shock waves around the world,
straining international relations almost to a breaking point.
What can we think of a regime that so broadly trumpets its vision of peace
and global disarmament and yet so callously and quickly
commits a terrorist act to sacrifice the lives of innocent human beings?
Reagan's reaction to the crisis strengthened U.S. conviction that stealth
would now be the prime requirement for America's new fighter.
Some senior people in the Pentagon looked at the stealth requirements
and decided they were inadequate, and they radically changed them.
So stealth became a really major, dominant requirement in the program.
In this politically charged climate, the U.S. Air Force created its Advanced Tactical Fighter,
or ATF, System Program Office.
Based at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio,
Colonel Albert C. Piccirillo was placed in charge of the division.
One of the things we really wanted was the ability to leverage stealth in a high-performance fighter,
and we also wanted this high-performance fighter to still be capable of good close-in,
within visual range, maneuvering capability.
In fact, we wanted more than just existing capability in some areas.
Manufacturers were invited to submit concepts for an aircraft
with an operational radius of 800 miles,
enough to allow it to operate over the entire central region of Europe
from bases in central England
It should have low observable characteristics
and be able to cruise at Mach 1.5 for an astonishing 600 miles.
We weren't building an airplane for the 1990s, although that was what we were trying to do.
We were really building a fighter for the 21st century
that could take on all of the advanced threats that the Soviet Union was likely to throw at us.
All of the teams had their work cut out for them,
but on top of this, the military added another complicating factor.
At the end of the concept demonstration phase,
the decision was made by the Air Force to launch a demonstration validation
phase of the program that would involve building two flight demonstrators,
YF-type airplanes, that would then be evaluated.
They didn't have to have full armament.
They didn't have to have avionics.
They didn't have to have stealth coatings.
But essentially, they were going to go out and show us what you can do.
But building prototype aircraft was expensive, and no one manufacturer could afford it on their own.
They all know that they must invest so much money in developing
that if they don't get the contract,
they're going to be so out-of-pocket. It's going to hurt the company badly.
Each manufacturer would submit a design for the demonstration valuation,
or Dem/Val, competition
but agreed that the winning company would be the prime contractor
and its partners subcontracted to produce major components.
Everybody's investment will be at least partly repaid
because everybody gets a piece of the action.
Seven designs for the air force competition were submitted for final evaluation.
All of the seven contractors came in with designs
that were very feasible and that could have been built.
The question was which were the best
and then how did we determine that they really were good enough.
Two manufacturers with strong experience in stealth technology,
Northrop Grumman with its B-2
and Lockheed Martin with its F-117, led the way.,
Northrop's advanced tactical fighter, or ATF, design
was for an alien-looking aircraft with diamond platform wings and huge V-tails.
It was a design that stressed speed and stealth.
Northrop came in with an airplane that really, from the very beginning,
looked just like the YF-23 that eventually was built and flown.
Lockheed's entry echoed that of the F-117.
Its vectored thrust, arrowhead shape, trapezoidal wings,
and four tails ensured that the aircraft would be maneuverable.
The fact was that Lockheed and Northrop had significant advantages
in the fact that they had built stealth aircraft and flown them.
It's a big credibility factor there.
On October 31, 1986, both Lockheed and Northrop's ATF designs were declared the winners.
Under the terms of the Dem/Val competition, each team would build two aircraft.
At the end of the process,
one of two designs would become America's new advanced tactical fighter.
Costing billions of dollars,
the new fighter would make a technological leap into the 21st century
The F/A-22's RADAR system gives the aircraft a 'first-look, first-shot, first-kill' capability.
That means it can see an enemy plane first, fire a missile and destroy the target
without the other pilot ever knowing.
And in 1990, just months after the disintegration of the Soviet Union,
the shapes of the two rival designs were finally unveiled.
Now, ladies and gentlemen, I proudly present to you the YF-22A
prototype for U.S. air superiority in the 21st century.
On behalf of the entire team, I am honored to present the YF-23.
Northrop's version, called the YF-23, closely resembled its original design.
Well, it was a most unusual-looking aircraft, very futuristic.
It had twin V-tails as opposed to what's called a cruciform,
twin verticals and twin horizontals.
It had a large trapezoidal wing, and it had a very slender shape
when looked at from the edge-on view.
In contrast, Lockheed's design, called the YF-22, seemed surprisingly conventional
with four tail surfaces, vectored thrust, a broad, solid body, and a conventional wing.
But unlike Lockheed's other stealth aircraft, the F-117, radar-absorbent materials
were not applied over the whole of the F/A-22
but used selectively on its edges, cavities, and other crucial surface areas.
You walk around the airplane, everywhere you look,
what you see is something that's designed to do the job in the most efficient and effective way
and no wasted space, no wasted capability.,
It's truly an airplane that's intended and has been optimized for its job.
The F-22 carries its weapons internally.
Four weapons bays are hidden in the central mid-body section.
Six missiles can be carried in the ventral bays, which are covered with bifold doors.
The side bays will each hold one Sidewinder missile carried on a trapeze launcher.
The mid-body section also houses the fighter's landing gear and complex inlet ducts.
Right from day one on the F-22,
we decided to put S-shaped inlet ducts on it,
so the airplane is built with S-shaped inlet ducts
so that there's no way a radar is ever seeing the forward face of the jet engine.
Attached to the mid-body is the forebody,
which accommodates the cockpit and advanced avionics.
Both the YF-23 and the YF-22 are impressive-looking machines,
but their performance still needs to be tested.
The most crucial stage of the competition is still to come: the flight testing.
Northrop was first in the air.
In August 1990, the YF-23, flown by Paul Metz, went airborne.
The test was a huge success.
But Lockheed was quick to respond,
and on September the 29th at Edwards Air Force Base in California,
chief test pilot Dave Ferguson prepared the Raptor for its maiden flight.
And I thought, "The only thing in this airplane, that's ever flown before is me,"
and I think in the back of my mind I was saying,
"Please fly; please fly," when I pulled the nose up, and it just lifted off.
I was fully aware we had a wonderful-flying airplane,
and the handling qualities in the takeoff and landing,
or power approaches we call it, were just absolutely superb.
When I landed and Sherm met me at the airplane, I said, "H"H, ss, we really have a winner here."
The way the F-22 performed was no surprise to anybody who was involved in the program, not at all.
I mean, my money has been on the F-22 from early 1985,
and it will be there till I'm gone.
Over the next three months, the Raptor underwent a whole series of tests.
The air force required both teams to give them performance projections,
and then they were going to actually compare that with what the airplanes actually did in flight,
subsonic, supersonic at different altitudes, and so forth.
The winner of this stage would earn a contract for 650 aircraft.
The decision would hinge not just on what the contractors promised
but on the air force's confidence in their ability to deliver.
We expected to get a lot of flying done in the 90 days.
We actually got 72 flights out of two airplanes in 90 days.
And that is about as good as you can do.
During flight testing, the Raptor had beaten Northrop's YF-23 in a number of crucial performance areas.
We'd focused on the supersonic testing, including supercruising,
and we did something that Northrop didn't do, and that is, we did launch a couple of missiles.
We launched a Sidewinder out of the internal side bay on our prototype airplanes,
and we launched an AMRAAM, long-range air-to-air missile, out of the internal weapon bays.
The YF-22 had clearly shown that in every category, it was far superior to any existing fighter.
The air force was very impressed by what Lockheed had done.
Their flight test program was very aggressive.They flew hard and fast.
They flew many more hours and sorties than Northrop did,
and all of that gave the air force confidence that they knew what they were doing,
high confidence that they could build a superior airplane.
But it would be events in 1991 that would carve out the Raptor's future.
22 minutes after midnight on January 17, 1991,
Lockheed's stealth F-117 spearheaded U.S. strikes against Saddam Hussein's regime.
The performance of Lockheed's stealth bombers during Operation Desert Storm
gave the company and its aircraft some priceless publicity.
I think, clearly, Lockheed was benefited in 1991 by the Gulf War,
where the F-117 was the star performer.
And there were skeptics of stealth even as late as that.
That had to be beneficial to the program.
But another aircraft also emerged from the Gulf War with a glowing reputation.
The F-15, the aircraft destined to be replaced by the ATF,
emphatically confirmed its status as the foremost air-superiority fighter in the world.
Now it appeared that the need for an advanced stealthy fighter,
the F-22, might be totally unfounded.
See, it's not like the F-15 wasn't any good. It's a good aircraft. It's still a good aircraft.
It will be a good aircraft for years to come.
You could even just tool up the factory and keep new F-15s
Why not?
Hey, I'm going to bring him up now.
But not everyone agrees.
The big weakness in their argument is,
they are making a statement about world conditions today
and what the threats are today.
The real issue is what capability you want for 2025 or 2030.
The people who say you don't need this,
they think the world is not going to change in the next 20 years,
and that is a hell of an assertion.
By April 1991, bogged down by the F-15 debate,
the U.S. Air Force prepared to announce the winner of the advanced tactical fighter contract.
But would the Raptor emerge from the controversy unscathed?
The F/A-22 was the first fighter aircraft with the ability to 'supercruise.'
That means it can fly at a velocity of one and a half times the speed of sound or greater,
without needing to engage afterburners.
Lockheed announced that it intended to locate the F-22's headquarters in Georgia,
where the Raptor's forward fuselage would be built.
General Dynamics would build the F-22's mid-body section in Fort Worth, Texas,
and Boeing would manufacture the wings and tail in Seattle, Washington.
But just eight months after the contract was awarded, the program hit its first major snag.
We lost one of the YF-22s.
Fortunately, the test pilot, who's a good friend of mine then and now,
walked away unharmed.
During preliminary testing, the unthinkable happened.
A YF-22 flown by Tom Morgenfeld crashed just after takeoff.
As this unique footage shows,
the aircraft's thrust vectoring system forces it to belly-land on the runway.
A key element of the Raptor's design, thrust vectoring,
uses movable exhaust nozzles to alter the angle of thrust from the two Pratt & Whitney engines.
As the Raptor makes its low-level flyby,
Tom Morgenfeld keeps the stick forward to keep the nose down,
but as the landing gear is retracted, the thrust vectoring engages
and pushes the aircraft towards the tarmac.
As the pilot struggles to correct this change in direction,
the Raptor seesaws.
The fundamental error there had nothing to do with the airplane.
It had to do with the fact that you don't fly a green airplane
and fly it at low speeds at low altitudes.
The cause of that accident was stupidity on the part of the management.
It had nothing to do with technology.
Despite the loss of the stealth aircraft, the program had achieved its major goals.
10 million man-hours of analysis, 4,000 hours of radar testing,
and hundreds of hours of flight testing had gone into the development of the aircraft
--even before construction was given the go-ahead.
In fact, the F-22 accomplished more flight testing than any other fighter prior to full-scale production.
The first F/A-22 built for the U.S. Air Force was unveiled in a ceremony on April 9, 1997,
at Lockheed's headquarters in Marietta, Georgia.
Now air force pilots would get the opportunity to check out the new aircraft for themselves.
I would call the Raptor the Miss America of all aircraft.
It's got the talent. It's got the bikini contest won. It's beautiful.
It's got all the capabilities. It really wins the show in every aspect.
The airplane is eye-watering.
It does everything the pilot asks of it, and it is very good at what it does.
First flown by the air force in 1997,
pilots at Edwards Air Force Base have exceeded 2,000 flight-test hours in more than 900 missions.
The first time I went out, one F/A-22, me, against four F-16s.
And they told me what they were going to do.
They were going to do everything possible to defeat my systems.
And I watched exactly what they did the entire time and shot them off.
It was almost too easy, and I was almost laughing in the cockpit.
A key breakthrough in the Raptor's design:
its advanced cockpit and integrated avionics systems.
I think really where the Raptor gets its amazing capability
is the fusion of all of the different sensors on the aircraft.
You have a tactical scope
that combines the information of all the other sensors on the aircraft
into one display for the pilot.
So as a pilot, you don't have to sort through the radar or another sensor
to see what's going on around you.
Information is power, and the way this airplane displays information to you,
it gives you knowledge of the battle space.
It's all about seeing what's out there in front of you and being able to make decisions
about what to engage, when to engage, and how to engage it.
I'd say integrated avionics, does two things for me.
Number one, it makes me a lot safer.It gives me less chance to crash my jet.
It also makes every pilot who flies this aircraft more deadly.
Instead of having to do six or eight steps to achieve a kill,
you really only have to do one.
The Raptor carries a formidable array of ordnance.
All of the raptor's weapons are housed inside the aircraft.
Two bays at the bottom of the plane use a pneumatic-style hydraulic launcher
that literally punch the missiles or JDAMs out of the aircraft
with a force of 40 Gs.
And two side bays house air-to-air missiles.
Here, a trapeze launcher moves the missile outside, the airframe very rapidly
a fraction of a second before the missile is fired.
And to complement the Raptor's armament of eight missiles,
the fighter also has a gun.
At one point in the evolution of the Advanced Tactical Fighter Program,
the U.S. Air Force had raised the question of eliminating the gun to save weight.
I think that the designers of the F/A-22 realized the mistakes of the past,
like the F-4 initially being designed without a gun,
and realized that you should never say never about a threat that you're going to face
or a situation you're going to find yourself in, and so the Raptor has designed itself a gun.
Will anybody get close enough for us to use the gun?
Well, hopefully not.Probably not.
By the late '90s, pilots in the Raptor program were convinced
that their aircraft was made of the right stuff
and would easily be able to outperform and destroy any other fighter in existence.
It is the sum of the parts that makes the F/A-22 so capable.
Probably most important in my eyes is the stealth.
Having an aircraft that nobody can see is just a tremendous, tremendous advantage.
The speed, the maneuverability, the precision, all of those factors are incredible also.
So when you put everything together, the Raptor's just incredible.
But this belief was exclusively based on controlled flight and missile firing exercises.
What the Raptor's pilots really needed was combat experience,
and they were about to get it.
America's untested fifth-generation stealth fighter was about to go head-to-head
with a combat-seasoned air-superiority fighter: the F-15 Eagle.
The Pentagon recently estimated that the total development and production cost
of its current plan for 279 raptors would come to nearly $72 billion.
Before the F/A-22 Raptor enters operational service with the U.S. Air Force in the fall of 2005,
it will have completed thousands of hours of vigorous combat testing.
But since Desert Storm, critics of the F-22 program
claim that the F-15 Eagle, destined to be replaced by the Raptor,
already has the attributes necessary
to remain the world's preeminent air-superiority fighter well into the new millennium.
It is a view dismissed by the U.S. Air Force.
If you look at the F-15 and the F-18
and compare it with existing fighters that are sold around the world today,
you'll find that today we're almost at parity.
If we ever run up against an enemy
that has the ability in terms of the aircrew to use those enemy fighters,
we will have a tough time with the current generation.
The F-15 is a great aircraft, and in air-to-air, it is outstanding.
However, with the production of new fighters that are being produced today
and also some surface-to-air threats,
there are situations in the F-15 that would make me nervous.
In March 2003, supporters of the F-15 got the opportunity to see
whether or not the Eagle was still the best fighter in the sky.
Five F-15s would go head-to-head with a single Raptor.
Although no missiles would be used during the exercise,
the sorties were closely resemble actual combat.
No mercy would be given by either side.
This was a kill-or-be-killed exercise.
There were five adversaries and me.
And my biggest concern was running out of weapons too soon.
All five F-15s were flown by experienced F-22 pilots.
One by one, the Raptor brought them down.
I could never see them.I never knew that they were there, and I died.
You got someone locked.
High point.
E2.
Roll left.
I could hear him on the radio calling his simulated missile shots fox two ... uh
and knowing that this was getting really unnerving
because I could also tell his range was closing rapidly on me.
Splash, Splash.
I don't think anybody ever saw me the entire time that while we were out in the airspace.
Bandit, Bandit.Fox.Fox.
Could not find him no matter what I did
and the next time was when he flew directly over the top of my airplane and I saw him visually.
And 3, 2, 1, snap.
I know firsthand from flying the Raptor against other aircraft
and flying other aircraft against the Raptor that it's like clubbing baby seals.
It's so easy.
First indication you have that an F/A-22 is out in your area of responsibility
is when you are in your parachute heading down towards earth
and your jet is falling a little bit faster than you are.
In combat testing with F-15s,
the F/A-22 Raptor had emphatically proven its doubters wrong.
There have been times when the Raptor has gone up two vs. 8 F-15s.
And it ends up being boring for the adversaries because no matter what they do, they die.
Having flown the F-15 and now having flown the Raptor and seen combat,
I would not want to be on the receiving end of what the F/A-22 is capable of.
We will take on anything, any combination of the latest aircraft
that we can throw at ourselves, and we usually win.
To date, 27 F/A-22 Raptors have been delivered to the U.S. Air Force
and are in limited operation at Edwards, Nellis, and Tyndall Air Force Bases.
Many more will follow.
The air force has agreed to a final production run of almost 300 aircraft.
I think 300 F/A-22s will tip the scales of any conflict in our favor.
I think that any country who sees 300 F/A-22s flying towards it
has got to get a little nervous.
Lockheed expects a full production rate of 60 aircraft a year,
and with components and parts coming from 46 states,
the F/A-22 is truly a national effort.
Costing a massive $93 million each,
the Raptor is certainly the world's most expensive fighter aircraft,
but for many, it is money well spent.
Yeah, this is something special.This is not like an F-15 on steroids or an F-16 on steroids.
This was the real thing with a leap of technology
that's orders of magnitude better than what we have now.
The interesting thing about the F-22, though, is that it is a fixed volume
with an infinitely increasing ability in terms of its computer capabilities.
If you think about the airplane, it has fixed holes in the sides of the fuselage
where computers sit today.In the future, there will be more computer capacity
that requires less power going in that same physical hole.
So the F/A-22 over the course of its life will only become a more and more flexible
and more and more potent machine as computer capacity increases.
America's F/A-22 Raptor was created out of the Cold War fear
that Russian-made fighters would sweep aside the F-15.
But the world has changed since the frigid days of the Cold War.
The Soviet Union no longer exists,
and the F-15 has more than earned the fear and respect it commands
as the current frontline fighter for the U.S. Air Force.
But the Raptor, Lockheed's F/A-22, looks set to carry U.S. Air Force doctrine well into the 21st century.
I'd be terrified to go into the arena with something like that.
I really would.I've been on the receiving end of it in testing
and mentally translated to myself to what if this was combat,
and it is an unnerving and a disquieting feeling
to fly in the same airspace with one of these airplanes.
I would say that it's not fair to our enemies or even our own technology to fight against the Raptor,
but the goal of war isn't fair.
We don't go into combat because we want a fair fight.
We want to win as fast as possible with as little loss of life as possible,
and the Raptor allows that to do that for generations to come.
In today's changing world, there are few certainties,
but the rule of the Raptor, America's air-dominance fighter over the skies, is one of them.
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F-22 猛禽(Raptor)介紹

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marmot 2015 年 2 月 15 日 に公開
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    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔