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  • So over the past few centuries, microscopes have revolutionized our world.

    翻訳: Yasushi Aoki 校正: Eriko T

  • They revealed to us a tiny world of objects, life and structures

    過去数世紀に渡って 顕微鏡は世界を変えてきました

  • that are too small for us to see with our naked eyes.

    小さすぎて肉眼では見えない 物や生物や構造の世界を

  • They are a tremendous contribution to science and technology.


  • Today I'd like to introduce you to a new type of microscope,

    科学や技術に対して 大いなる貢献をしました

  • a microscope for changes.

    今日ご紹介したいのは 新しいタイプの顕微鏡

  • It doesn't use optics like a regular microscope


  • to make small objects bigger,

    普通の顕微鏡のように 光学的に小さなものを大きく

  • but instead it uses a video camera and image processing


  • to reveal to us the tiniest motions and color changes in objects and people,


  • changes that are impossible for us to see with our naked eyes.

    肉眼では見えないような 人や物の微細な動きや

  • And it lets us look at our world in a completely new way.

    色の変化を 見えるようにします

  • So what do I mean by color changes?

    これは世界に対する まったく別の見方を与えてくれます

  • Our skin, for example, changes its color very slightly

    色の変化とは どんなものかですが

  • when the blood flows under it.

    例えば人の肌というのは 血の流れに応じて

  • That change is incredibly subtle,


  • which is why, when you look at other people,

    これはとても 微妙な変化であるため

  • when you look at the person sitting next to you,

    隣に座っている人を 見たところで

  • you don't see their skin or their face changing color.


  • When we look at this video of Steve here, it appears to us like a static picture,

    変わっているようには 見えません

  • but once we look at this video through our new, special microscope,

    このスティーブの映像を見ても 静止画のように見えます

  • suddenly we see a completely different image.

    しかし私達の新しい顕微鏡を 通して見ると

  • What you see here are small changes in the color of Steve's skin,

    まったく異なる イメージが現れます

  • magnified 100 times so that they become visible.

    肌の色の小さな変化を 100倍増幅することで

  • We can actually see a human pulse.

    目で見て分かる ようにしています

  • We can see how fast Steve's heart is beating,

    脈拍を見て取る こともできます

  • but we can also see the actual way that the blood flows in his face.


  • And we can do that not just to visualize the pulse,

    顔を血がどう流れているかも 分かります

  • but also to actually recover our heart rates,

    脈拍を可視化 できるだけでなく

  • and measure our heart rates.


  • And we can do it with regular cameras and without touching the patients.


  • So here you see the pulse and heart rate we extracted from a neonatal baby

    普通のカメラでできて 患者に触れる必要もありません

  • from a video we took with a regular DSLR camera,

    ここでは普通のDSLRカメラで撮った 新生児の映像から

  • and the heart rate measurement we get

    脈拍と心拍数を 取り出しています

  • is as accurate as the one you'd get with a standard monitor in a hospital.


  • And it doesn't even have to be a video we recorded.

    病院にある通常の計器によるのと 同様の正確さがあります

  • We can do it essentially with other videos as well.

    映像も自分で撮ったもの である必要はなく

  • So I just took a short clip from "Batman Begins" here


  • just to show Christian Bale's pulse.

    これは『バットマン ビギンズ』の一場面から

  • (Laughter)

    クリスチャン・ベールの心拍が 見えるようにしたものです(笑)

  • And you know, presumably he's wearing makeup,

    クリスチャン・ベールの心拍が 見えるようにしたものです(笑)

  • the lighting here is kind of challenging,

    映画なのでメークも しているだろうし

  • but still, just from the video, we're able to extract his pulse

    光の条件にも 難しい面がありますが

  • and show it quite well.

    それでも映像から 彼の心拍を

  • So how do we do all that?

    非常にうまく 取り出せています

  • We basically analyze the changes in the light that are recorded


  • at every pixel in the video over time,

    ビデオのそれぞれの ピクセルに記録された

  • and then we crank up those changes.


  • We make them bigger so that we can see them.


  • The tricky part is that those signals,

    変化が見て分かるくらいに 大きくするわけです

  • those changes that we're after, are extremely subtle,

    難しいのは 捉えたい変化が

  • so we have to be very careful when you try to separate them

    非常に小さなものだ ということで

  • from noise that always exists in videos.

    その変化を 録画につきもののノイズから

  • So we use some clever image processing techniques

    注意深く分離する 必要があります

  • to get a very accurate measurement of the color at each pixel in the video,

    それぞれのピクセルの ごく正確な色を得るために

  • and then the way the color changes over time,

    巧妙な画像処理を 行っています

  • and then we amplify those changes.

    それから色の 時間変化の仕方を捉え

  • We make them bigger to create those types of enhanced videos, or magnified videos,


  • that actually show us those changes.

    変化が目で見て分かるよう 変化の強調された

  • But it turns out we can do that not just to show tiny changes in color,


  • but also tiny motions,

    このようにして見えるようにできるものには 微細な色の変化だけでなく

  • and that's because the light that gets recorded in our cameras


  • will change not only if the color of the object changes,

    カメラに記録される光は 色の変化によってだけでなく

  • but also if the object moves.


  • So this is my daughter when she was about two months old.


  • It's a video I recorded about three years ago.

    これは生後2ヶ月の頃の 私の娘です

  • And as new parents, we all want to make sure our babies are healthy,

    3年ほど前に 録画したものです

  • that they're breathing, that they're alive, of course.

    親になったばかりの人は 赤ちゃんが健康か 息をしているか

  • So I too got one of those baby monitors

    生きているか いつも気にかけています

  • so that I could see my daughter when she was asleep.

    私も娘の眠っている姿を 見られるよう

  • And this is pretty much what you'll see with a standard baby monitor.

    ベビーモニターを 買いました

  • You can see the baby's sleeping, but there's not too much information there.

    普通のベビーモニターで見られるのは このような映像です

  • There's not too much we can see.

    眠っている様子は分かりますが 情報は大して得られません

  • Wouldn't it be better, or more informative, or more useful,

    見て分かる事は 殆どありません

  • if instead we could look at the view like this.

    もしこんな風に 見えたとしたら

  • So here I took the motions and I magnified them 30 times,

    もっと情報が得られて 有用ではないでしょうか?

  • and then I could clearly see that my daughter was indeed alive and breathing.

    動きを30倍拡大することで 娘の動きがはっきり見て取れるようになりました

  • (Laughter)

    これで娘が確かに生きて 呼吸しているのが分かります

  • Here is a side-by-side comparison.


  • So again, in the source video, in the original video,


  • there's not too much we can see,


  • but once we magnify the motions, the breathing becomes much more visible.


  • And it turns out, there's a lot of phenomena

    しかし動きを拡大した映像では 呼吸の様子がよく分かります

  • we can reveal and magnify with our new motion microscope.


  • We can see how our veins and arteries are pulsing in our bodies.

    明らかにできる身の回りの現象は たくさんあります

  • We can see that our eyes are constantly moving

    体の中で静脈や動脈が どう脈打っているか分かります

  • in this wobbly motion.

    目が絶えずユラユラ 動いていることも

  • And that's actually my eye,


  • and again this video was taken right after my daughter was born,


  • so you can see I wasn't getting too much sleep. (Laughter)

    娘が生まれた頃に 撮ったので

  • Even when a person is sitting still,

    あまり寝ていないのが 分かるかと思います(笑)

  • there's a lot of information we can extract


  • about their breathing patterns, small facial expressions.


  • Maybe we could use those motions

    呼吸のパターンとか 小さな顔の表情とか

  • to tell us something about our thoughts or our emotions.


  • We can also magnify small mechanical movements,

    その人の思っていることや 感情も分かるかもしれません

  • like vibrations in engines,

    エンジンの振動のような 小さな機械の動きも

  • that can help engineers detect and diagnose machinery problems,


  • or see how our buildings and structures sway in the wind and react to forces.

    機械の問題の検出や診断を技術者がするのに 役立つかもしれません

  • Those are all things that our society knows how to measure in various ways,

    建物や構造物が風に揺れたり 反発したりする様子も見て取れます

  • but measuring those motions is one thing,

    こういった動きを計測する方法なら 以前からありましたが

  • and actually seeing those motions as they happen


  • is a whole different thing.

    実際に目で見えるようにする というのは

  • And ever since we discovered this new technology,


  • we made our code available online so that others could use and experiment with it.


  • It's very simple to use.

    ネット上でプログラムを公開して 誰でも実験できるようにしています

  • It can work on your own videos.


  • Our collaborators at Quanta Research even created this nice website

    自分のビデオで 試すことができます

  • where you can upload your videos and process them online,

    私達の協力者のQuanta Researchは ご覧のようなサイトも用意していて

  • so even if you don't have any experience in computer science or programming,

    ビデオをアップするだけで 結果を見られます

  • you can still very easily experiment with this new microscope.

    だからコンピュータサイエンスや プログラミングの知識がまったくなくても

  • And I'd like to show you just a couple of examples

    簡単にこの顕微鏡で 実験ができます

  • of what others have done with it.

    これを使ってみんなが どんなことをしているのか

  • So this video was made by a YouTube user called Tamez85.


  • I don't know who that user is,

    このビデオはTomez85という YouTubeユーザーが作ったもので

  • but he, or she, used our code


  • to magnify small belly movements during pregnancy.


  • It's kind of creepy.

    妊婦のお腹の動きを 拡大しています

  • (Laughter)


  • People have used it to magnify pulsing veins in their hands.


  • And you know it's not real science unless you use guinea pigs,

    ここでは手の静脈の拍動を 拡大しています

  • and apparently this guinea pig is called Tiffany,

    しかしモルモットを使わなくちゃ 科学っぽくなりませんよね

  • and this YouTube user claims it is the first rodent on Earth

    このモルモットは ティファニーという名前で

  • that was motion-magnified.

    作者はこれが 微細な動きを拡大された

  • You can also do some art with it.

    最初の齧歯類だと 主張しています

  • So this video was sent to me by a design student at Yale.


  • She wanted to see if there's any difference

    イェール大のデザイン科の学生が 送ってきたもので

  • in the way her classmates move.

    友人の身動きの仕方に 違いがあるか

  • She made them all stand still, and then magnified their motions.


  • It's like seeing still pictures come to life.

    じっとしているように頼んで それから動きを拡大したものです

  • And the nice thing with all those examples

    写真が動き始めたみたいな 感じがします

  • is that we had nothing to do with them.


  • We just provided this new tool, a new way to look at the world,

    我々自身何もする必要が なかったことです

  • and then people find other interesting, new and creative ways of using it.

    ただ新しい道具と 世界を見る新しい方法を提供するだけで

  • But we didn't stop there.

    いろんな人が新しくて面白い 創造的な使い方を見つけてくれます

  • This tool not only allows us to look at the world in a new way,


  • it also redefines what we can do

    このツールは世界に対し 新しい見方ができるようにするだけでなく

  • and pushes the limits of what we can do with our cameras.


  • So as scientists, we started wondering,

    可能性の限界を 押し広げもします

  • what other types of physical phenomena produce tiny motions

    科学者として 私達は考え始めました

  • that we could now use our cameras to measure?

    カメラで計測できる 微細な動きを生み出す物理現象として

  • And one such phenomenon that we focused on recently is sound.


  • Sound, as we all know, is basically changes

    そのような現象の1つとして 我々が最近取り組んでいるのが「音」です

  • in air pressure that travel through the air.


  • Those pressure waves hit objects and they create small vibrations in them,


  • which is how we hear and how we record sound.

    圧力の波が物にぶつかる時 小さな振動を生じ

  • But it turns out that sound also produces visual motions.

    それを使って私達は音を聞いたり 録音したりしています

  • Those are motions that are not visible to us

    しかし音は視覚的な 動きも作り出します

  • but are visible to a camera with the right processing.


  • So here are two examples.

    カメラを使って適切に処理すれば 見えるようになります

  • This is me demonstrating my great singing skills.


  • (Singing)

    これは私が素晴らしい歌唱力を 披露しているところです

  • (Laughter)


  • And I took a high-speed video of my throat while I was humming.


  • Again, if you stare at that video,

    声を出している時の喉を 高速度カメラで撮影しました

  • there's not too much you'll be able to see,


  • but once we magnify the motions 100 times, we can see all the motions and ripples


  • in the neck that are involved in producing the sound.

    動きを100倍拡大してやると 発声に関わる首の部分に

  • That signal is there in that video.

    波のような動きが広がっているのが 分かります

  • We also know that singers can break a wine glass

    音の痕跡が映像に 残されているわけです

  • if they hit the correct note.

    歌手は特定の音程の声を出して グラスを割れる

  • So here, we're going to play a note

    という話は 良く知られています

  • that's in the resonance frequency of that glass


  • through a loudspeaker that's next to it.


  • Once we play that note and magnify the motions 250 times,

    横のスピーカーから 出しています

  • we can very clearly see how the glass vibrates

    その時の動きを 250倍拡大すると

  • and resonates in response to the sound.

    グラスが音に共鳴して 振動しているのが

  • It's not something you're used to seeing every day.


  • But this made us think. It gave us this crazy idea.

    あまり日常で目にする光景では ありませんね

  • Can we actually invert this process and recover sound from video

    しかしここから 突飛なアイデアを思いつきました

  • by analyzing the tiny vibrations that sound waves create in objects,

    この過程を逆にして 映像から音を 復元できないでしょうか?

  • and essentially convert those back into the sounds that produced them.

    音波が物の表面に作り出す 微細な振動を解析して

  • In this way, we can turn everyday objects into microphones.

    元になった音を 生成するのです

  • So that's exactly what we did.

    そのようにすれば 身の回りにある物を マイクに変えることができます

  • So here's an empty bag of chips that was lying on a table,

    私達はまさにそれを やってみました

  • and we're going to turn that bag of chips into a microphone

    テーブルの上にポテトチップの 空き袋があります

  • by filming it with a video camera

    これをビデオ撮影して 音により生じた —

  • and analyzing the tiny motions that sound waves create in it.

    微細な動きを 解析することで

  • So here's the sound that we played in the room.

    ポテトチップの袋をマイクロフォンに 変えようというわけです

  • (Music: "Mary Had a Little Lamb")

    この部屋では こんな音楽を流しています

  • And this is a high-speed video we recorded of that bag of chips.


  • Again it's playing.

    そしてポテトチップの袋を 高速度カメラで撮影しました

  • There's no chance you'll be able to see anything going on in that video


  • just by looking at it,


  • but here's the sound we were able to recover just by analyzing


  • the tiny motions in that video.

    映像の中の微細な動きを 解析することで

  • (Music: "Mary Had a Little Lamb")

    このような音を 再現できました

  • I call it -- Thank you.


  • (Applause)


  • I call it the visual microphone.


  • We actually extract audio signals from video signals.

    「ビジュアル・マイクロフォン」 と呼んでいます

  • And just to give you a sense of the scale of the motions here,

    ビデオ信号からオーディオ信号を 取り出しているのです

  • a pretty loud sound will cause that bag of chips to move less than a micrometer.

    動きの大きさが どれくらいかというと

  • That's one thousandth of a millimeter.

    かなり大きな音でも ポテトチップの袋の動きは1ミクロン未満です

  • That's how tiny the motions are that we are now able to pull out


  • just by observing how light bounces off objects


  • and gets recorded by our cameras.

    映像の中で物に反射する光を 観察することによって

  • We can recover sounds from other objects, like plants.


  • (Music: "Mary Had a Little Lamb")

    他の物を使うこともできます たとえば植物とか

  • And we can recover speech as well.


  • So here's a person speaking in a room.


  • Voice: Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

    こちらでは部屋の中で 人が話しています

  • and everywhere that Mary went, that lamb was sure to go.

    Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow, (メリーさんは小さな羊を飼っていた 雪のように白い毛をして)

  • Michael Rubinstein: And here's that speech again recovered

    and everywhere that Mary went, that lamb was sure to go. (メリーさんの行くところは どこにでも付いてきた)

  • just from this video of that same bag of chips.

    前と同じ ポテトチップの袋の映像から

  • Voice: Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,


  • and everywhere that Mary went, that lamb was sure to go.

    Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

  • MR: We used "Mary Had a Little Lamb"

    and everywhere that Mary went, that lamb was sure to go.

  • because those are said to be the first words


  • that Thomas Edison spoke into his phonograph in 1877.

    エジソンが1877年に 蓄音機で

  • It was one of the first sound recording devices in history.

    最初に録音したのが この歌だったからです

  • It basically directed the sounds onto a diaphragm

    それは音を記録する 最初の装置の1つでした

  • that vibrated a needle that essentially engraved the sound on tinfoil


  • that was wrapped around the cylinder.

    その振動を針に伝え それが筒に巻いたアルミ箔に

  • Here's a demonstration of recording and replaying sound with Edison's phonograph.


  • (Video) Voice: Testing, testing, one two three.

    これはエジソンの蓄音機で 録音し再生するデモです

  • Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

    (録音)Testing, testing, one two three.

  • and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

    Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

  • Testing, testing, one two three.

    and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

  • Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

    (再生)Testing, testing, one two three.

  • and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

    Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

  • MR: And now, 137 years later,

    and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

  • we're able to get sound in pretty much similar quality


  • but by just watching objects vibrate to sound with cameras,

    音に振動する物の映像だけから 同程度のクオリティの音を

  • and we can even do that when the camera


  • is 15 feet away from the object, behind soundproof glass.

    しかも防音ガラスの 向こう側にある

  • So this is the sound that we were able to recover in that case.

    5メートル離れた物を使って それができるのです

  • Voice: Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,


  • and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

    Mary had a little lamb whose fleece was white as snow,

  • MR: And of course, surveillance is the first application that comes to mind.

    and everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

  • (Laughter)

    すぐ思いつく応用は スパイ活動でしょう

  • But it might actually be useful for other things as well.


  • Maybe in the future, we'll be able to use it, for example,


  • to recover sound across space,

    もしかしたら 将来宇宙の向こうの音を

  • because sound can't travel in space, but light can.

    再現できるように なるかもしれません